History Files

Please help the History Files

Contributed: 175

Target: 400

Totals slider

The History Files still needs your help. As a non-profit site, it is only able to support such a vast and ever-growing collection of information with your help, and this year your help is needed more than ever. Please make a donation so that we can continue to provide highly detailed historical research on a fully secure site. Your help really is appreciated.

Far East Kingdoms



Southern Qi (Ch'i) Kingdom (Northern & Southern Dynasties China)
AD 479 - 502

The 'Northern & Southern Dynasties' period of Chinese history saw the continuance of a chaotic period of internecine warfare. Restored to unity following the bitter, highly destructive wars of the 'Three Kingdoms' period, China almost immediately fractured again at the start of the 'Sixteen Kingdoms' period. Much of the conflict took place in the north, above the line of the Yangtze River, and between various Chinese states and barbarian states. Towards the end of this period it became harder to tell the difference between Chinese and barbarian as the Northern Wei managed to secure control of the entire north. This triggered the start of the 'Northern & Southern Dynasties' period, which saw further warfare and fracturing.

Several regional kingdoms rose and fell, and each fought the other for power and territory. This process continued to permit various barbarian empires also to rise and fall along China's western borders. To the north-west this included the Rouran khaganate, which governed much of Mongolia until the middle of the sixth century AD.

Northern & Southern Dynasties / Six Dynasties

(Information by Peter Kessler, with additional information from The Origin of the Turks and the Turkish Khanate, Gao Yang (Tenth Türk Tarih Kongresi, Ankara 1986), from The Turks in World History, Carter Vaughin Findley (Oxford University Press 2005), from The Origins of Northern China's Ethnicities, Zhu Xueyuan (Beijing 2004), from Ethnogenesis in the tribal zone: The Shaping of the Turks, Peter Benjamin Golden (2005), and from External Links: China between empires: the northern and southern dynasties (Internet Archive), and Zizhi Tongjian: Comprehensive mirror to aid in government (ChinaKnowledge.de).)


General Xiao Daocheng has already murdered the arrogant and harsh Emperor Houfei of the (Liu) Song dynasty and replaced him with his more malleable brother. Then he ensures he is granted the title duke of Qi, which is quickly succeeded by that of prince of Qi. Now he decides to dispense entirely with the (Liu) Song emperors. He seizes the throne by forcing the twelve year-old emperor to hand the throne to him. Then Liu Zhun is murdered by his own guards (a short time later) and the Liu clan in general is slaughtered. Xiao Daocheng's new Southern Qi dynasty now controls all of southern China.

Southern Qi's founder, General Xiao Daocheng
Southern Qi's founder was General Xiao Daocheng, who murdered Emperor Houfei of the (Liu) Song dynasty (not necessarily without good reason) and then established his own dominance over all of southern China

479 - 483

Xiao Daocheng / Kao Ti



Haji Wang of the Gaya confederacy of Daegaya in Korea sends an embassy to 'Namje', otherwise known as Nán Qí or Southern Qi. As that kingdom has only just been formed, the embassy must be to congratulate General Xiao Daocheng for assuming control of all of southern China.

483 - 494

Wu Ti



A monk named Nagasena is sent by Funan to offer gifts to the Southern Qi emperor and to ask the emperor for help in conquering Lâm Ấp. This seems to make Funan's neighbour an enemy for the first time, but this antagonism stems from the presence on the throne of the usurper, Tang-ken-ch'un. The requested help is not forthcoming.

494 - 499

Ming Ti


499 - 501

Tung Hun Ho


501 - 502

Ho Ti



The Southern Qi are succeeded by the Southern Liang dynasty.

Images and text copyright © all contributors mentioned on this page. An original king list page for the History Files.