History Files

Far East Kingdoms



Southern Qi (Ch'i) Kingdom (Northern & Southern Dynasties China)
AD 479 - 502

The 'Northern & Southern Dynasties' period of Chinese history saw the continuance of a chaotic period of internecine warfare. Restored to unity following the bitter, highly destructive wars of the 'Three Kingdoms' period, China almost immediately fractured again at the start of the 'Sixteen Kingdoms' period. Much of the conflict took place in the north, above the line of the Yangtze, and between various Chinese states and barbarian states. Towards the end of this period it became harder to tell the difference between Chinese and barbarian as the Northern Wei managed to secure control of the entire north. This triggered the start of the 'Northern & Southern Dynasties' period, which saw further warfare and fracturing.

Several regional kingdoms rose and fell, and each fought the other for power and territory. This process continued to permit various barbarian empires also to rise and fall along China's western borders. To the north-west this included the Rouran khaganate, which governed much of Mongolia until the middle of the sixth century AD.


Northern & Southern Dynasties / Six Dynasties

(Information by Peter Kessler, with additional information from The Origin of the Turks and the Turkish Khanate, Gao Yang (Tenth Trk Tarih Kongresi, Ankara 1986), from The Turks in World History, Carter Vaughin Findley (Oxford University Press 2005), from The Origins of Northern China's Ethnicities, Zhu Xueyuan (Beijing 2004), from Ethnogenesis in the tribal zone: The Shaping of the Turks, Peter Benjamin Golden (2005), and from External Links: China between empires: the northern and southern dynasties (Internet Archive), and Zizhi Tongjian: Comprehensive mirror to aid in government (ChinaKnowledge.de).)


General Xiao Daocheng has already murdered the arrogant and harsh Emperor Houfei of the (Liu) Song dynasty and replaced him with his more malleable brother. Then he ensures he is granted the title duke of Qi, which is quickly succeeded by that of prince of Qi. Now he decides to dispense entirely with the (Liu) Song emperors. He seizes the throne by forcing the twelve year-old emperor to hand the throne to him. Then Liu Zhun is murdered by his own guards (a short time later) and the Liu clan in general is slaughtered. Xiao Daocheng's new Southern Qi dynasty now controls all of southern China.

Southern Qi's founder, General Xiao Daocheng
Southern Qi's founder was General Xiao Daocheng, who murdered Emperor Houfei of the (Liu) Song dynasty (not necessarily without good reason) and then established his own dominance over all of southern China

479 - 483

Xiao Daocheng / Kao Ti



Haji Wang of the Gaya confederacy of Daegaya in Korea sends an embassy to 'Namje', otherwise known as Nn Q or Southern Qi. As that kingdom has only just been formed, the embassy must be to congratulate General Xiao Daocheng for assuming control of all of southern China.

483 - 494

Wu Ti


494 - 499

Ming Ti


499 - 501

Tung Hun Ho


501 - 502

Ho Ti