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Near East Kingdoms

Ancient Mesopotamia


MapCity State of Kazallu

Briefly mentioned during the Akkadian empire, the small city of Kazallu was situated in central Mesopotamia, just fifteen or so kilometres north-north-west of Babylon, which was still insignificant at the time of Kazallu's short-lived rise to power in the second millennium BC. Kazallu, along with Isin in the south, gained control of its respective region upon the fall of Ur and the dismissal of the conquering Elamites. The city's patron saint was Mumushda / Numushda.

fl c.2330 BC


Perhaps a sub-king. Revolted against Sargon of Agade.

c.2330 BC

Although it is an unsupported account, it seems Kazallu is devastated by Sargon for resisting Akkadian power.

fl c.2040 - 2030 BC

Apillasha / Apillasa

Governor (énsi) of Kazallu under Ur.

fl c.2016 - 2013 BC


Governor (énsi) of Kazallu under Ur.

c.2016 BC

The governor of Kazallu appeals to Ibbi-Sin of Ur for help against the encroaching forces of Ishbi-Erra of Isin. Help is refused, and within three years Kazallu falls to Isin.

MapAmorite Rulers of Kazallu & Marad (Marda)

The Semitic-speaking Amorites had been inhabitants of Sumer for some centuries, and rose to fill the gap left by the end of Sumerian civilisation. Under them, Kazallu briefly became a regional power, vying against first Isin and then Babylon, although it is questionable how much direct influence Amorites had in its rise, as at least one of the rulers bore a Semitic name.

The city, which had been an ally of Ibbi-Sin's Ur, conquered a swathe of territory following the line of the canals south to the city of Marad (modern Tell Wannat es-Sadum in Iraq), but held onto it for perhaps only half a century. Marad was a small city of approximately 5,000 inhabitants which was situated on what was at the time the west bank of the Euphrates, to the west of Nippur.

c.1950 BC

Kazallu remains a minor city state with no power outside its own territory and under the governance of Isin.


Represented by a statue. Possible king.


Represented by a statue. Possible king, probably Semitic.


c.1900? BC

Perhaps benefiting from Isin's considerable problems at this time, Kazallu seems to break away to form a state of its own, probably seizing Marad at the same time.

? - c.1897 BC

Sumuditama / Sumuditan

Also overlord of Kish & Babylon.

c.1897 BC

Upon the death of Sumuditama, Kish and Babylon both succeed in freeing themselves from Kazallu's domination. Kazallu still controls a large swathe of territory from Sippar in the north, down to Marad in the south, which had been seized from Isin. Details of its rulers amount to little more than the odd inscription.


c.1883? BC

Sumuabum of Babylon lays waste to his implacable enemy in Kazallu, but it appears the city survives and continues to hold a position of some power in the region.



? - c.1854 BC


A Semitic name. Killed by Babylon.

c.1861? BC

In the expectation of trouble, the Babylon king drives out Yakhzir-ilu. Two years later the ramparts are torn down and Babylon fights the city's inhabitants, finally killing the king seven years after he is first driven out. If Babylon doesn't integrate the territory into its domains at this point, it certainly does so by around 1800 BC.

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