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European Kingdoms

Italian Peninsula

 

 

 

Consuls & Senators of Rome
AD 887 - 1191

The feudal period of the late eighth and ninth centuries was one in which little central authority existed in Europe. In the mid-eighth century, the expanding Frankish empire defeated the Lombards in Italy, seizing the former Byzantine exarchate of Ravenna and handing it to the papacy as the Papal States. Unfortunately, as the Frankish empire descended into division and disunity, later popes struggled to hold onto all the territory.

At the same time, a civil authority was beginning to emerge in Rome itself following its independence from Constantinople. Initially it was dominated by just a few powerful noble families, and such was their power that even the papacy was under their thumb in the tenth century. The first noble to exercise domination over the papacy was Prince Theophylact of the Theophylactii. He served Louis III of East Francia as judex in Italy, and was subsequently elected consul by Rome's nobility. He was also a senator and magister militum, and count of Tusculum (modern Tuscany).

887 - c.914

Theophylact / Theophylactus

Prince, Consul, and Senator of Rome. Count of Tusculum.

887 - c.914

Theodora

Wife and senatrix.

897

Perhaps acting under pressure from the powerful Spoleto family, Pope Stephen convenes the Cadaver Synod, in which the corpse of Pope Fromosus is disinterred, dressed in papal robes, and tried on various charges.

904

This is a period in which powerful women of the nobility play politics and influence papal rule in Rome, and one in which a dominating civil power emerges in the city, typified by the Theophylactii. Senator Theophylact, count of Tusculum, and his wife, Senatrix Theodora (said to be the mistress of Pope John X), are the parents of Marozia. She is reputedly the concubine of Pope Sergius and gives birth to a son (the later Pope John XI). She also succeeds her father in being the power behind the papal 'throne'. Marozia is married to Alberic I of Spoleto, increasing her influence and allowing their son, Senator Alberic II, to continuing the numbering in AD 932 that had started with the dukes of Spoleto.

Tusculum amphitheatre
This romantic painting shows the amphitheatre of the Italian city of Tusculum, native territory of the influential counts of Tusculum

914 - 931

Marozia

Dau. Lady of Rome. Died 945.

914 - 922

Alberic I

Husband. Duke of Spoleto.

915 - 928

As the latest in a series of conflicts with the Saracens, Pope John X leads the Christian League of various Italian states into the Battle of Garigliano, a drawn-out combination of fights and a siege. The Saracens find themselves in a worsening situation and eventually attempt to flee, only to be captured and killed. In 928, the pope himself is killed through the machinations of Lady Marozia.

932 - 954

Alberic II

Son of Marozia & Alberic I, 'Prince & Senator of the Romans'.

936

The power of Lady Marozia, daughter of Prince Theophylact, and her mother over the papal office is succeeded by that of Marozia's son, Alberic II, who elects several popes in succession. His son goes one step further when in 955, acting on his late father's wishes, he becomes Pope himself.

954

Pope Agapetus is a surprisingly strong-willed pope for this period. He appeals to the king of the Saxons, Otto I, to end the stranglehold of Prince Alberic II over the papacy. The appeal has little immediate effect, until after Otto becomes Holy Roman Emperor.

954 - 963

Octavianus / Ottaviano

Son. Prince of Rome. Pope John XII (955-964).

963 - 964

Following on from a previous appeal from Pope Agapetus II to free the papacy from outside control, Holy Roman Emperor Otto I arrives in Rome, taking direct control of the city where he has Pope John accused in an ecclesiastical court. The pope is deposed and replaced, but in his other guise as Octavianus he is powerful enough to have Otto's representatives mutilated and himself reinstated.

964 - 965

Pope John's control of Rome is short-lived, as he dies soon afterwards. Benedict V is elected, but is deposed after just a month by former Anti-pope Leo VIII.

965 - 966

Pope John XIII is accepted by Holy Roman Emperor Otto I but not by Rome. A revolt against him sees him temporarily banished from the city between December 965 to November 966, and a populist government rules in Rome. His successor is also supported by Otto, but not by the most powerful family of Rome, the descendants of Consul Theophylact, count of Tusculum.

966 - 972

Holy Roman Emperor Otto I remains in direct control of Rome for much of his lifetime. In 973, Crescentius of the powerful Crescentii family becomes dominant, opponent of the Theophylactii in the struggle for the control of Rome.

973 - 985

Crescentius I

Grandson of Theophylact. Consul of Rome from 980.

974

The untimely death of Pope Benedict VI is apparently at the hands of Anti-pope Boniface, on the orders of Crescentius I. Boniface flees to Constantinople following the subsequent public outcry. The Crescentii are able to offer their own replacement, Benedict VII, son of David, who himself is the brother of Alberic II. He is elected by the imperial representative of Holy Roman Emperor Otto II along with the clergy and people of Rome.

984 - 985

Anti-pope Boniface VII returns to Rome in 984, and murders the unpopular Pope John XIV. He seizes the papal office for a short period before he himself seems to fall victim to assassination in 985. Little is known of this period in Rome, reflecting the political uncertainty in the region following the death of Holy Roman Emperor Otto II. However, the presence in Rome of Empress Theophanu, mother and regent of Otto III, helps to stabilise the situation during the office of John XV.

985

Giovanni Crescenzio I

Consul of Rome. Restored in 996.

985? - 996

Crescentius II

Deposed his predecessor? Hanged.

996 - 997

Pope John XVII is elected by Crescentius II of the Crescentii and the nobles of Rome in opposition of the wishes of the young Holy Roman Emperor Otto III. The emperor marches on Rome, forcing John to flee, but he is captured, and his nose, ears and tongue are removed. He survives the ordeal and is sent to a monastery for the remainder of his life. Crescentius II, at bay in the Castel Sant'Angelo, is captured after a siege and is hanged from the castle walls.

996 - 998

Giovanni Crescenzio I

Restored. Died 998.

998 - 1001

Holy Roman Emperor Otto III takes direct control of Rome as part of his dream to recreate the Roman empire united together with the papacy. His dream falls apart when the people of Rome revolt against him, led by Gregory, count of Tusculum, and force him from the city. He dies on the way back to the city with an army.

1001 - 1002

Gregory I

Son of Alberic II. Count of Tusculo (Tusculum).

1002 - 1012

Giovanni Crescenzio II / John Crescentius

Son of Crescentius II.

1003

The next two popes, both named John, are elected by the consul and patrician of Rome, John Crescentius, son of Crescentius II. The third pope elected by John Crescentius, Sergius IV, shows some signs of resisting his domination, possibly by supporting an opposing faction.

1012

Pope Benedict VIII is opposed by Gregory VI and a small opposition faction and is forced to flee Rome. He is returned to office by Holy Roman Emperor Henry II, and the latter is subsequently crowned by the grateful pope. Benedict also manages to subdue the powerful Crescentii, leading nobles in Rome for over a century.

1012

Theophylact II

Son of Gregory. Count of Tusculo (Tusculum). Pope Benedict VIII.

1012 - 1015

Alberic III

Brother. Count of Tusculo (Tusculum). Consul of Rome.

1015 - 1032

Romano di Tusculo / Romanus

Brother. Pope John XIX.

1033 - 1046

Theophylact III?

Son of Alberic III. Count of Tusculo (Tusculum).

1036 - 1044

Pope Benedict IX is briefly forced to flee Rome. His entire period of office is reputed to be one involving immorality, adultery, rape and murder, with the Catholic Encyclopaedia calling him a disgrace. In this instance he is restored by Holy Roman Emperor Conrad II. At the end of 1044 he is again forced to leave the city, with his opposition electing Sylvester III.

1046 - 1047

Holy Roman Emperor Henry III takes control of Rome and convenes the Council of Sutri in December 1046 to sort out the mess that is the papal office. Benedict and Sylvester are declared to be deposed, and Gregory is asked to resign. The office is granted to Clement II, but his death in 1047 allows Benedict IX to seize the Lateran Palace. He is forced out by troops of Henry III in 1048 and is subsequently excommunicated.

1047?

Annibale degli Annibali

Senator of Rome.

1047 - 1058

Gregory II

Brother of Theophylact III. Count of Tusculo (Tusculum).

1058

Pope Benedict X is elected by the count of Tusculum, but some cardinals suggest that votes have been bought. Stephen's election is generally opposed and a new pope, Nicholas II, is elected at Siena. He proceeds to Rome, declaring Benedict's excommunication at Sutri. Open warfare ensures between the supporters of either pope, and a campaign in the regions around Rome leads to Benedict renouncing his claim of office.

1058 - 1084

A republic led by the aristocratic families of Rome holds secular power in the city, perhaps led by Gregory III, count of Tusculum.

1058 - c.1108

Gregory III

Son. Count of Tusculo (Tusculum).

1061

The election of Pope Alexander II by the new method of convening the College of Cardinals is not recognised by the imperial court in Germany under Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV, which elects Honorius. He marches to Rome, but is unable to dislodge Alexander, and his support is eventually withdrawn. He is excommunicated in 1063, but persists with his claim until his death.

College of Cardinals
The College of Cardinals (seen here in 1922) was formed in 1061 to elect the pope

1080 - 1085

Anti-pope Clement III is appointed by an exasperated Holy Roman Emperor, Henry IV. The emperor has already been excommunicated twice by Pope Gregory VII for opposing his reforms which will involve a loss of established imperial power over the papacy. In 1084, Henry IV enters Rome and takes direct control of the city, forcing Gregory to retire to Castel Sant'Angelo where he is besieged. Clement is installed as pope in his place. Gregory's death in 1085 solves nothing, as Henry IV and Clement have been driven from Rome by Duke Robert Guiscard of Apulia and Calabria.

1085 - 1108

Following the withdrawal of Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV from Rome, a new republic is formed by the city's aristocratic families. During this period, new noble families emerge into positions of power, especially the Frangipane and Vico families. The counts of Tusculum are sidelined by this time. When the prefecture is restored, the Frangipanes are ready to step into the role.

1108 - 1143

Pierleone Frangipane

Prefect of Rome.

1108 - 1143

Leone Frangipane

Prefect of Rome.

c.1108 - 1126

Tolomeo I / Ptolemy I

Son of Gregory III. Count of Tusculo (Tusculum).

1126 - 1153

Tolomeo II / Ptolemy II

Son. Count of Tusculo (Tusculum).

1143 - 1144

Pope Lucius' dealings with Roger II, duke of Apulia and Calabria, lead to a peace of sorts between the Papal States and the Normans in southern Italy, but supply the Roman Senate with the opportunity to reassert its ancient rights. Led by Giordano Pierleoni, a republic is re-established in Rome which seeks to control the Papal States, although the nobility remain neutral in the matter. The Commune of Rome is established, led by Pierleoni. Lucius attempts to force the issue and the Forum is used as a battlefield in which the pope receives a fatal injury. His successor is unable to enter Rome for much of his term in office. However, Pierleoni is deposed by the people after a year in command.

1144 - 1145

Giordano Pierleoni / Jordanus

Son of Pierleone Frangipane. Senator of Rome. Deposed.

1146 - 1152

Giacomo da Vico

1152 - 1158

A republic, not controlled by the aristocratic families this time, is formed in Rome as Pope Eugenius III arrives from his exile in Tusculum to be formally installed.

1153 - c.1167

Jonathan

Son of Tolomeo II. Count of Tusculo (Tusculum).

1153 - 1179

Raino

Brother and joint count of Tusculo (Tusculum).

1158 - 1167

Pietro I da Vico

1167 - 1178

Giovanni da Vico

1177

Venice offers hospitality to Pope Alexander III and Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, and the republic arbitrates the peace between them following Barbarossa's defeat at Legnano the year before (29 May 1176). Barbarossa renounces his claim to Roman territory and recognises the pope as the city's sovereign prince on 1 August 1177.

1186 - 1228

Pietro II da Vico

1191

The number of senatores (senators) in Rome is reduced to one in a thorough reformation of the process of governing the city. From this point on, civil government in Rome is generally handled by the senators rather than the nobility or the papacy.

Senatores of Rome
AD 1191 - 1434

The new communal government in Rome was recognised by Pope Clement III in 1188. In 1191, the number of senatores (senators) in the city was reduced to one in a thorough reformation of the process of governing the city. From this point on, civil government in Rome would be handled by the senators rather than the nobility or the papacy.

Later, there were frequently two senators selected to govern together, and usually for a term of just one year. The power-sharing policy was between the Papist Guelf Party, which was led by the Orsini family, and their opponents, the Imperialist Ghibelline Party which was led by the Colonna family. It was a way of allowing each of them to act as a restraint towards the other.

1191 - 1193

Benedetto

First solo senator of Rome.

1193 - 1195

Giovanni Capoccio

1195 - 1197

Pierleoni Capoccio

1197 - 1198

The senatorial government of Rome is briefly interrupted when a republic is declared.

Santa Maria in Trastevere
Santa Maria in Trastevere (on the right) was perhaps founded in the third century, restored in the eighth and ninth, and totally rebuilt in the twelfth, much of which survives today

1198

Scotto Paparone

1199 - 1204

Pandolfo della Suburra

1204

Gregorio Pierleoni

1204 - 1205

Feuding between the Pope's family and the Orsinis reaches a head, with rioting in the city and strongholds on either side being besieged. The tumult causes much damage to Rome's ancient buildings.

1205 - 1207

Pandolfo della Suburra

Restored.

1207 - 1212

Giovanni di Leone

1212

Gentile

1212 - 1213

Giovanni del Giudice

1213

Petruccio di Settisolio

1214

Giovanni degli Alberteschi

1215

Guido Buonconte

1216

Pandolfo Giudice

1217

Nicola di Parenzi

1218

Lorenzo di Processu

1219

Stefano Malabranca

1220

Giacomo di Ottone

1220 - 1222

Parenzo di Parenzi

1222 - 1225

Annibale di Buonconte

1225

Buonconte de' Monaldeschi

1225

Parenzo di Parenzi

Restored.

1225 - 1227

Angelo de' Benincasa

1227

Anibaldo degli Anibaldi

1228

Eude o Ottone

1229

Ricardo Calisti

1229

Antonio Calisti

1230 - 1231

Anibaldo Anibaldi

1230 - 1231

Giovanni II da Vico

Prefect of Rome.

1231 - 1233

Giovanni de' Poli

1233

Pandolfo della Suburra

1233

Gianotto di Oddone

1234 - 1235

Luca Savelli

1235

Angelo Malabranca

1235 - 1236

Giovanni Cenci Frangipane

1237

Petrasso

Count of Anguillara.

1237

Annibale degli Anibaldi

1238

Giovanni de' Poli

Restored.

1238

Giovanni Cenci Frangipane

Restored.

1238 - 1241

Giovanni del Giudice

Podesta of Florence (1234).

1241

Annibale degli Anibaldi

Restored.

1241

Oddone Colonna

1241 - 1243

Matteo Rossi-Orsini

1244 - 1262

Pietro III

Count of Anguillara. Prefect of Rome.

1244 - 1245

Annibale degli Anibaldi

1246

Pietro Frangipani

1247

Bobo di Giovanni

1248 - 1249

Pietro Anibaldi

1248 - 1249

Angelo Malabranca

1249 - 1252

The position of senator in Rome is vacant.

1252

Raimundo Capizuccio

1252 - 1254

Brancaleone degli Andalò

Count of Casalecchio.

1255

Jacopo Capoccio

1255

Buonconter de' Monaldeschi

1256

Martino della Torre

1256 - 1257

Emanuele de Madio

1257 - 1258

Brancaleone degli Andalò

Restored.

1258 - 1259

Castellano degli Andalò

1259

Napoleone Orsini

1259

Riccardo degli Anibaldi

1260 - 1261

Giovanni Savelli

1260 - 1261

Anibaldo Anibaldi

1261 - 1263

A provisional government manages Rome's affairs, following which, in 1263, King Charles I of Sicily is elected senator.

1262 - 1268

Pietro IV da Vico

Prefect of Rome.

1263 - 1266

Charles I of Anjou

King of Sicily (1266-1285). King of Hungary (1308-1342).

1266

Luca Savelli

1267 - 1268

A populist government controls the city. The Ghibelline party is crushed at the Battle of Tagliacozzo in 1268, and Charles of Anjou is able to retake control of Rome.

Battle of Tagliacozzo
The Battle of Tagliacozzo saw Charles d'Anjou, king of Sicily, regain control of Rome

1268 - 1278

Charles I of Anjou

Restored.

1272 - 1302

Pietro V da Vico

Prefect of Rome.

1278

Matteo Rossi-Orsini II

1279 - 1280

Giovanni Colonna

1279 - 1280

Pandolfo Savelli

1281 - 1284

Charles I of Anjou

Restored for a second time.

1284

Annibale Annibaldi

1284 - 1285

Pandolfo Savelli

Restored.

1285

Annibale Transmundo

1286 - 1287

Gentile Orsini

1288 - 1289

Bertoldo Orsini

1288

Orso Orsini I

1288 - 1290

Niccolò de' Conti

1290

Luca Savelli

1290

Giovanni Colonna

Lord of Rome.

1291

Pandolfo Savelli

Restored for a second time.

1292

Stefano Colonna

Count of Romagna.

1292

Matteo Rinaldo

1293

Agapito Colonna

1293

- Orsini

First name unknown.

1293 - 1294

Pietro Rainieri de' Stefaneschi

1293 - 1294

Eude di San Eustacchio

1294

Tommaso da San Severino

Count of Marsico.

1295

Ugolino de' Rossi

1296

Pietro de' Stefaneschi

1296

Andrea Romano

1297 - 1298

Pandolfo Savelli

Restored for a third time.

1298

Eude o Oddone

1298 - 1300

The position of senator in Rome is vacant.

1300

Riccardo Annibaldi

1300

Gentile Orsini

1300 - 1302

The position of senator in Rome is again vacant.

1302

Giacomo Napoleone Orsini

1302

Matteo Rinaldi Orsini

1303

Guido de Pileo

1303

Tebaldo Orsini

1303

Alessio Bonaventura

1304

Gentile Orsini

1304

Luca Savelli

1305 - 1306

Paganino della Torre

1305 - 1377

Pope Clement V resides at Poitiers for the first four years of his papacy, before moving to an enclave in Avignon (now in France but at this time part of the lands of Frederick I, king of Sicily), in a period known as the Babylonian Captivity. This starts a period of decline in Rome, with no new building work being initiated, and many monuments and churches falling slowly into ruin.

1306

Gentile Orsini

Restored.

1306

Stefano Colonna II

1307

Pietro Savelli

1307

Giovanni Normanni

1307

Giovanni Cerese

1307 - 1308

Ricardo degli Annibaldi

1307 - 1308

Giovanni Colonna

1308

Giacomo Sciarra Colonna

1308

Giacomo Savelli

1308 - 1337

Manfred da Vico

Prefect of Rome.

1309

Giovanni Pietro de' Stefaneschi

1309

Tebaldo di San Eustachio

1312

Francesco Orsini

1312

Giacomo Sciarra Colonna

1312 - 1313

A populist revolt ousts the senators temporarily.

1313

Francesco Orsini

Restored.

1313

Giacomo Sciarra Colonna

Restored.

1314 - 1326

Robert d'Anjou

King of Naples (1309-1343).

1327 - 1328

Pope John XXII has already opposed Louis IV of Bavaria as Holy Roman Emperor, so the Bavarian king invades Italy and sets up Nicholas V as a short-lived anti-pope. Fortunately, the successor of John XXII is much more conciliatory.

Louis IV Wittelsbach
The vigorous king of Bavaria and HRE Louis IV also became king of Italy in 1327

1328

Louis IV Wittelsbach

Duke of Bavaria (1294-1347) & HRE (1314-1347).

1328

Castruccio Castracani

Lord of Pisa & Lucca.

1328

Rainiero della Faggiuola

1328

Bertoldo Orsini

1328

Stefano Colonna

1328 - 1335

Robert d'Anjou

Restored.

1335

Riccardo Fortebraccio

1335

Giacomo Colonna

1335 - 1337

The position of senator in Rome is vacant.

1337

Stefano Colonna

1337

Orso dell'Anguillara

1337

Giacomo di Cante dei Gabrielli

1337

Bosone Novello dei Raffaelli da Gubbio

1338 - 1339

Matteo Orsini

1338 - 1339

Pietro Colonna

1339 - 1342

Disorder by the populace of Rome disturbs the city. Rule by two senators is reintroduced.

1340

Tebaldo di San Eustachio

1340

Martino de' Stefaneschi

1341

Orso dell'Anguillara

1341

Giordano Orsini

1341

Francesco Orsini

1341

Paolo Niccolo degli Annibaldi

1341

Francesco Savelli

1342 - 1352

Pope Clement VI

Senator of Rome for Life.

1343 - 1344

Matteo Orsini

1343 - 1344

Paolo Conti

1344

Giordano Orsini

1344

Giovanni Colonna

1345

Bertoldo Orsini

1345

Orso dell'Anguillara

1345

Rainaldo Orsini

1345

Nicola Anibaldi

1346

Orso Orsini

1346

Nicola Conti

1346

Nicola Annibaldi

Restored.

1346

Giordano Orsini

1347

Roberto Orsini

1347

Pietro Colonna

1347

Cola de Rienzo, an impassioned student of the Bible, believes that he has a divinely inspired mission to revive the ancient glories of Rome. He marches to the Capitol, surrounded by his adherents, and convokes a parliament of the people. Unfortunately, his head is turned by his sudden success and he quickly develops into a tyrant who is soon deposed.

1347

Cola Rienzo / Rienzi

Tribune. Dictator of Rome (May-Dec).

1347 - 1350

The Black Death rips through Europe, killing about a third of its population. It has a major effect on the economy and on working practices, especially in England, where the decimated peasant workforce is now able to demand freedom and pay for its services. The Jews are popularly blamed for the epidemic, but Pope Clement issues two papal bulls and urges the clergy to protect Jews.

Black Death
The Black Death ripped through Europe, killing perhaps one third of its entire population in just two or three years

1348

Bertoldo Orsini

1348

Luca Savelli

1349

Nicola de Zancato

1349

Guido Francesco Orsini

1350

Pietro Colonna Giordani

1350

Giovanni Orsini

1350 - 1351

Rinaldo Orsini

1350 - 1351

Stefanello Colonna

1351

Further revolts by the populace of the city disrupts the senatorial governorship of Rome. A popular government is formed in order to complete the exclusion of the nobles.

1351 - 1352

Giovanni Cerroni

Captain. Dictator of Rome.

1352

Bertoldo Orsini

1352

Stefanello Colonna

Restored.

1352

Giovanni Orsini

1352

Pietro Sciarra

1352 - 1353

The people of Rome revolt in 1352 and Francesco Baroncelli gains power as dictator. He is rapidly overthrown. The supremacy of the senate is granted to the pope, and Guido Patrizi is nominated as senator.

1353

Francesco Baroncelli

Tribune. Dictator of Rome.

1353 - 1354

Guido Giordani Patrizi

1354

Cola Rienzi

Restored.

1355

Orso Andrea Orsini

1355

Giovanni Tebaldi

1355

Luca Savelli

1355

Francesco Orsini

1356

Sciarra Colonna

1356

Nicola Orsini

1356

Orso Capoccio

1356

Pietro Capoccio

1357

Pietro Giordani Colonna

1357

Nicola Riccardi degli Anibaldi

1358 - 1362

Pope Innocent VI

Senator of Rome for Life.

1358

Raimondi de' Tolomei

1359

Luigi Rocca

1359

Ungaro de Sassoferrato

1360

Tommaso de Planciano

1361

Hugh de Lusignan

1361

Paolo de Argento

Count of Campello.

1362

Lazzaro de' Cancelliari

1363

Rosso de' Ricci

1363

Guelfo di Bostenti

1363

Bonifacio Ricciardi

1364 - 1365

Francesco Ugolini degli Arcipreti

1365 - 1367

Three thousand men, mostly archers, are enrolled under the command of two banderesi. with four antepositi constituting a supreme council of war. As a whole, the body is styled the 'Felix Societas Balestrariorum et Pavesatorum'. It is instituted to support the reformers and re-establish order in Rome and the Campagna, to keep down the nobles and defend the republic. It fulfils these duties severely, sometimes too severely. Its power is temporarily suspended by the return of the pope to the city and his assumption of supreme authority.

1367

Biagio Fernando de Belvisio

1367

Berardo Monaldeschi

1368

Bertrando de' Rainardi

1368

Gentile da Varano

1369

Luigi de Sabran

Count d'Ariano.

1369 - 1370

Bernardo Corrado de' Monaldeschi

1371 - 1372

With Urban V leaving the city again shortly before his death, having failed to fully establish himself, a second period of banderesi government controls Rome.

1372

Raimundo de' Tolomei

1373

Pietro de Marina

1373

Fortunato Rainoldi

1374

Antonio da San Raimundo

1375

Francesco

Count of Campello.

1376

Simeone de' Tommasi

1376 - 1377

A third period of banderesi government controls Rome until Pope Gregory XI ends the Babylonian Captivity by restoring the papacy to its traditional seat in the city. His death the following year leads to the Roman mob breaking into the College of Cardinals to insist on the election of an Italian pontiff.

Pope Gregory XI
Pope Gregory XI ended the Babylonian Captivity by bringing the papacy back to Rome

1377

Gomez Albornoz

1377

Guido de Prohinis

1378

Tommaso da San Severino

1378 - 1379

The government of Rome, ever turbulent, forms another short-lived period of banderesi government in opposition to the pope's authority.

1382

Tommaso Minoti

1383 - 1389

During the discord engendered by the difficult Pope Urban VI, a banderesi government controls civil affairs in Rome. The pope excommunicates the banderesi and they eventually submit to him, making him master of the city shortly before his death in 1389.

1389

Damiano Cattaneo

1389 - 1391

Pope Urban's successor fails to control the banderesi, the time taken to appoint a senator being part of the problem. A short period of government by banderesi is resolved in 1391.

1391 - 1392

Giovanni Cenci

1393 - 1398

Pope Boniface's relations with Rome decline rapidly when the banderesi discover that he intends to keep all recently conquered territory for himself, rather than appoint it to Rome's keeping. A riot breaks out and the pope is forced to flee to Perugia in October 1392. Eventual agreement is reached which allows the the pope to elect the senator, and if he fails to do so the conservators will carry on the government after swearing fealty to him. The senatorial function will not be controlled or hampered by the banderesi. The immunities of the clergy are to be preserved, and all church property is to be respected by the magistrates. When a plot to re-establish the banderesi is discovered in 1398, the ringleaders are beheaded, ending the banderesi threat once and for all.

1399

Angelo Alaleoni

1399

Zaccaria Trevisano

1400

Benuttino Cima

1400

Bartolomeo Carafa

1401

Pier Francesco de' Brancaleoni

1401

Antonio Avuti

Count of Monteverde.

1402

Pier Francesco de' Brancaleoni

Restored.

1403

Riccardo d'Agnello

1404

Giacomo di Montedolce

1405

Bente dei Bentivogli

1405

Francesco Panciatichi

1406 - 1407

Pier Francesco de' Brancaleoni

1407

Giovanni Cima da Cingoli

1408 - 1410

Ladislas

King of Naples (1386-1414). Lord of Rome from 1408.

1408 - 1410

Gianezzo Torti

1410 - 1411

Ruggero

Count of Antigliola.

1411 - 1412

Ricardo degli Alidosi

1413

Felcino di Hermannis

Count of Monte Giuliano.

1413 - 1414

Ladislas

King of Naples, restored as lord of Rome.

1413 - 1414

Niccolò de Diano

1414

Giovanni Torti

1414

Antonio de' Grassi

1415

Ricardo degli Alidosi d'Imola

1416

Giovanni Alidosi

1417

Ruggero

Restored. Count of Antigliola.

1417 - 1418

Giovanni Spinelli

1419

Ranuccio Farnese

1420

Nerio Vitori

1420

Baldassare

Count of Bardella d'Imola.

1421

Stefano de' Branchis

1421

Nicolai Salerno

1422

Bartolomeo Gonzaga

Podesta of Florence (1403).

1422 - 1434

Following the papal seizure of Rome and many other Italian cities, and much destruction, the old senatorial arrangement in the city is finally abandoned. The pope controls the civil government of the city, restoring peace and security but removing liberty.

1434 - 1798

One last revolt by the people of Rome leads to a wholesale slaughter of the ring-leaders, ensuring the final death of the old system. The papacy assumes what is effectively direct control of the city's governance. Day-to-day administrative duties are delegated mostly to the College of Cardinals and various papal departments. This arrangement manages to survive until the invasion of French General Napoleon Bonaparte at the end of the eighteenth century.

1796 - 1800

Republican France begins the conquest of Austria's territories in Italy. Rome is occupied by force, briefly, by Naples in 1798. A Roman republic is proclaimed at the end of the year (1798-1799), using the territory of the Papal States. The pope is required to renounce his temporal authority, and when he refuses he is taken prisoner. He is taken off into captivity by the French and dies shortly after his arrival in Valence. Austrian victories in Italy force the French to withdraw from Rome.

Napoleon at the Battle of Rivoli
Napoleon commands at the Battle of Rivoli, 14-15 January 1797, the first French campaign in Italy against Austria

1801

A Concordat is agreed with French First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte to restore the links between Rome and the French Church. However, the Peace of Luneville in the same year compensates several German princes for losses of territory by assigning to them ecclesiastical land in Germany taken from the Pope.

1808 - 1814

With relations between French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte and the Pope deteriorating rapidly in 1808, Rome is occupied by a division of French troops. The following year the remaining Papal States are annexed to the French-controlled kingdom of Italy, including ancient Spoleto. When Pius VII subsequently excommunicates Napoleon, the French capture Castel Sant'Angelo, and a French officer breaks into the papal residence and kidnaps the pope himself. The pope remains a French captive for six years, being moved around Europe to various holding points.

1814 - 1815

Napoleon Bonaparte is exiled to Elba and the Pope regains control of Rome and its associated territories. In 1815, following a brief period of occupation by Joachim Murat, king of Naples, Napoleon is permanently removed from European politics. Austria renews its control of northern Italy, and the Papal States are restored to Rome.

1859 - 1866

During 1859-1861, Italy is forged by nationalist Giuseppe Garibaldi into a single kingdom during the War of Unification, freeing Italy from Austrian control. The Savoyard king of Sardinia becomes king of Italy (a title previously held by the Holy Roman Emperors), gaining Parma, Sicily & Naples, and Spoleto, but at the same time losing Savoy to France. In 1866 Venice is annexed and added to Italy, while much of the Papal States has already been absorbed by this date.

1870 - 1871

With the seizure of Rome in 1870, Italy achieves full union under the House of Savoy. The following year, Rome becomes its capital for the first time since the collapse of the Western Roman empire, and the last vestiges of the Papal States are absorbed into the new kingdom.

1929

The pope and Mussolini sign the Lateran Treaty, finally settling the breach between the Italian government and the papacy that has existed since the seizure of the Papal States in 1870. The treaty establishes the independent Vatican City State in Rome.