History Files
 

 

Far East Kingdoms

South East Asia

 

 

 

Vietnam

Modern Vietnam emerged from two states, Annam (otherwise known as Nam Viet or Dai Viet) in the north, and the southern Champa. The northern kingdom eventually became free of Chinese rule and later conquered Champa. The Mekong Delta region in the far south of Vietnam was not originally Vietnamese but Cambodian.

Thuc Rulers of Annam
257 - 207 BC

Annam is Chinese for 'The Pacified South'. This was a Viet state in the Red River Delta. It and its successors were strongly influenced by China, and spent a long period as part of China. The Thuc Dynasty lasted for almost exactly the same period as the Chinese Ch'in.

257 - 207 BC

An Duong

207 BC

Annam is replaced by the Chieu Dynasty of Nam Viet.

Chieu Rulers of Nam Viet / Nan Yue
207 - 111 BC

207 - 137 BC

Vu Vuong

137 - 125 BC

Van Vuong

125 - 113 BC

Minh Vuong

113 - 111 BC

Ap Vuong

111 BC

Duong Vuong

111 BC - AD 544

The state is conquered by the Han Chinese. It eventually re-emerges under the Li Dynasty.

Kings of Champa
192 BC - AD 1471

Strongly influenced by India even down to the names of its kings. Its name may have originated from the capital of the Indian Iron Age kingdom of Anga. Its eventual conquest meant its culture was submerged by a Chinese-influenced one. The capital was at Indrapura.

Kings of Nam Viet
AD 544 - 1533

Nam Viet formed much of what became familiar as Vietnam. Occupied by China since its previous Chieu rulers were conquered in 111 BC, It re-emerged as an independent kingdom, at first briefly, later more permanently, until it broke up by 1533.

Early Li / Ly Dynasty

544 - 548

Bon

548 - 571

Kuan Phuc

549 - 555

Thien Bao

571 - 603

Phat Tu

603 - 939

Conquered by the Sui Chinese, the Nam Viet kingdom eventually re-emerges under the Ngo Dynasty.

Ngo Dynasty

The Ngo were unable to subdue a dozen local military chiefs and never secured recognition from China.

939 - 945

Kuyen

945 - 951

Duong Tam Kha

951 - 954

Suong Ngap

951 - 965

Suong Van

965 - 968

The kingdom is controlled by the Northern Sung Dynasty of China.

Dinh Dynasty

Short-lived, but the dynasty defeated the warlords and pacified the Chinese with tribute.

968 - 979

Dinh Tien

979 - 981

Dinh De Toan

Early Le Dynasty

The Early Le began by defeating a Chinese invasion in 981. The following year they attacked Champa, killed its king, sacked the Cham capital (Indrapura), and came home with an enormous amount of booty. Le Hoan's successor, however, was dethroned by the first monarch of the Later Ly dynasty.

981 - 1005

Le Hoan

1005 - 1009

Trung Tong

Dethroned.

Later Li / Ly Dynasty

The Ly replaced warlords with a Chinese-style civil service bureaucracy at Hanoi, and thus granted their country with a far greater degree of stability. The Le called their country Dai Viet, but the Chinese name of Annam ('The Pacified South') was used everywhere else. The country prospered, and the government encouraged cultural progress by vigorously promoting literature, art, and Mahayana Buddhism.

1010 - 1028

Thai To

1028 - 1054

Thai Tong

1054 - 1069

Thanh Tong

1069 - 1072

Thanh Tong

Later Le Dynasty

1072 - 1127

Nan Ton

1127 - 1138

Than Tong

1138 - 1175

Anh Tong

1175 - 1210

Kao Tong

1210 - 1224

Hue Tong

1224 - 1225

Tieu Hoang

Early Tran Dynasty

1225 - 1258

Thai Tong

1258 - 1277

Thanh Tong

1278 - 1293

Nan Tong

1293 - 1314

Anh Tong

1314 - 1329

Minh Tong

1329 - 1341

Hien Tong

1341 - 1369

Du Tong

1370 - 1372

Nghe Tong

1372 - 1377

Due Tong

1377 - 1388

De Hien

1388 - 1398

Tran Thuan Tong

1398 - 1400

Tran Thieu De

Ho Dynasty

1400

Ho Qui Ly / Kui Li

Usurper.

1400 - 1407

Han Thuong

1407 - 1428

The country is occupied by the Ming Chinese.

Later Tran Dynasty

1407 - 1409

Hau Tran Jian Dinh De

1409 - 1413

Hau Tran

1413 - 1428

[Vacant]

Later Le Dynsty (Restored)

1428 - 1433

Thai To

1433 - 1442

Thai Tong

1442 - 1459

Nan Tong

1460 - 1497

Thanh Tong

1497 - 1504

Hien Tong

1504 - 1509

Vi Muc De

1509 - 1516

Tuong Duc De

1516 - 1522

Tieu Tong

1522 - 1527

Kung Hoang

Mac Dynasty

1527 - 1529

Dang Dung

1529 - 1533

Dang Doanh

d.1540

1533

The kingdom of Nam Viet breaks up. The most prominent survivor is the kingdom of Dai Viet.

Kings of Dai Viet
AD 1533 - 1954

Dai Viet was the kingdom which eventually conquered other, more minor, kingdoms to form the basis of modern Vietnam.

Nguyen Dynasty

1533 - 1545

Kim

1545 - 1558

The country is split by civil war.

1558 - 1613

Hoang

1613 - 1635

Phuc Nguyen

1635 - 1648

Phuc Lan

1648 - 1687

Phuc Tan

1687 - 1691

Phuc Tran

1691 - 1725

Phuc Chu I

1725 - 1738

Phuc Chu II

1738 - 1765

Phuc Khoat

1765 - 1778

Phuc Thuan

1778 - 1802

Anh

1802

Dai Viet absorbs the other Vietnamese kingdoms.

1802 - 1820

Gia Long

Emperor.

1820 - 1841

Minh Mang

1831 - 1834

The Siamese-Vietnamese War has the alternate title of the Siamese-Cambodian War. Following Ang Chan's recapture of the Cambodian throne in 1812, the Siamese have been moving into northern Cambodia and then advancing towards the south in support of their own claimant. The Cambodians are routed at the Battle of Kompong Chang in 1832, and Ang Chan is forced to flee to Viet Nam. Siam is soon distracted by a revolt by the Cambodians at the same time as the Vietnamese-controlled Laos revolt. A Vietnamese army of 15,000 advances towards the Siamese in 1833, forcing the latter to withdraw. Ang Chan is restored, albeit as a Vietnamese puppet.

1841 - 1848

Thieu Tri

1841 - 1845

The 'Siamese-Vietnamese War in Cambodia', as it is known, has seen increasing Vietnamese influence in Cambodia during the reign of Queen Ang Mey. The Cambodians rebel in 1841, overthrowing the pro-Vietnamese elements and appealing to Siam. Their chosen candidate is Prince Ang Duong, and he is duly installed by force in 1842. Viet Nam and Siam now face strike and counter-strike by their respective armies while the Cambodians rebel against the same Siamese heavy-handedness that started the war in the first place. On 13 September 1845, the Vietnamese take Phnom Penh and Siam is forced to withdraw. During the subsequent peace negotiations, Cambodia is placed under joint Siamese-Vietnamese protection.

1848 - 1883

Tu Duc

1863

King Norodom requests that France establishes a protectorate over Cambodia, ending joint Siamese-Vietnamese protection. Siam voluntarily relinquishes its role and recognises the French protectorate of Cambodia. Viet Nam has its own problems, with creeping French colonial activities taking place within its borders.

1883 - 1940

Dai Viet comes under a French protectorate.

1883

Duc Duc

1883

Hiep Hoa

1883 - 1884

Kien Phuc

1884 - 1885

Ham Nghi

1885 - 1889

Dong Khanh

1885 - 1907

Thanh Thai

1907 - 1916

Duy Tan

1916 - 1925

Khai Dinh

1925 - 1945

Bao Dai

1940 - 1945

The country is occupied by Japan.

1945 - 1954

The French Protectorate is re-established. Almost immediately, in 1946, communist forces provided with arms and supplies by China attempt to take control of the country. The First Indochina War becomes a key battleground in the Cold War. France is provided with supplies and arms by the USA, which is highly concerned about the 'domino effect' of country after country falling to communism, but it is French soldiers who fight on the ground in a war that is largely overshadowed by the USA's subsequent involvement in the region.

1949 - 1955

Bao Dai

d.1997

1954 - 1975

On 7 May 1954 the Viet Minh defeat the French at Dien Bien Phu, effectively ending French involvement in Indochina. The republic of Vietnam is declared. From 1959 to 1975, US forces help to prop up the government during the Vietnam War, or Second Indochina War, but they are unable to prevent communist forces from the north from gaining overall control. The South Vietnamese government surrenders unconditionally to North Vietnam on 30 April 1975, ending the war. A communist republic is declared.

The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War between the north and south, with US support for the latter, devastated the country

1979 - 1991

Vietnam invades and conquers much of Cambodia, freeing most of it from Khmer Rouge rule.