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Near East Kingdoms

Ancient Mesopotamia


MapCity State of Akshak / Akcak

According to the king list, Akshak defeated the Third Dynasty of Kish to claim the kingship. Situated on the northern borders of Akkad, it is sometimes identified with Babylonian Upi (Greek Opis). Its exact location is uncertain, but it was probably near Eshnunna, on the banks of the River Diyala. It first appeared in written records in about 2600 BC and during the period of its ascendancy, in the twenty-fifth century BC, it was at war with Lagash.

FeatureThis is the twelfth set of entries on the Sumerian list comprising kings 67-72. Six kings ruled for 99 / 116 years (Lists 1 & 2), or five kings ruled for 87 years (List 2). Here, List 1 is primarily used, backed up by List 2 and List 3 (see Sumer for details).

fl c.2470 BC


Possibly the same person as Urur, and placed at c.2417 BC.

c.2459 - 2429 BC


Ruled for 30 years. A possible vassal of Ur (until c.2445 BC?).

c.2429 - 2417 BC


Ruled for 12/6 years.

c.2417 - 2411 BC

Urur / Zuzu? / Urur

Ruled for 6 years.

Urur leads the northern coalition against Eannatum of Lagash, but it is defeated, routed, and chased to the gates of the city of Akshak. Urur recognises the supremacy of Lagash.

Lagash figurine
Akshak was dominated by Lagash for a time, so figurines like this example from Lagash dated to 2500 BC may well have been found in both cities

c.2411 - 2391 BC

Puzur-Nirah / Puzur-sahan

Ruled for 20 years.

Akshak presumably gains the kingship from Kish around this time.

c.2391 - 2367 BC

Ishu-Il / Icu-Il

Ruled for 24 years.

c.2367 - 2360 BC

Shu-Sin / Cu-Suen / Gimil-Sin

Son. Ruled for 7/24/14 years.

c.2360 BC

The Fourth Dynasty of Kish reclaims the kingship.

c.2353 - 2330 BC

Akshak is captured by Lugalzaggesi of Umma, and presumably becomes a vassal thereafter.

Images and text copyright © all contributors mentioned on this page. An original king list page for the History Files.