History Files


Middle East Kingdoms

Ancient Mesopotamia




MapFeatures for Ancient MesopotamiaKarana

The modern site of Tell Rimah (60km west of Mosul in Iraq) is a candidate for the location of Karana, although Qattara is the favourite. Perhaps more likely is that Karana is buried under the modern town of Tell Afar. Emerging as one of a wave of small states in northern Mesopotamia in the nineteenth century BC, Karana flourished after the collapse of the kingdom of Upper Mesopotamia, and for much of its short period of independence it and Qattara were united within one state.

? - c.1776 BC


Probably a vassal of Upper Mesopotamia.

c.1809 - 1776 BC

Karana is conquered by Shamshi-Adad and is incorporated into the kingdom of Upper Mesopotamia. Samu-Addu is probably retained as a vassal. Upon the collapse of the kingdom and the re-establishment of much of the previous order in northern Mesopotamia, Samu-Addu's power wanes and Shamshi-Adad's vassal in Qattara seizes Karana. Samu-Adad is possibly driven into exile in Eshnunna along with his whole family, something that definitely happens to his daughter, Iltani.

c.1776 - ? BC

Hatnu-rabi / Hadnu rabi

King of Qattara. Ally of Sharriya of Razama.

fl c.1770 BC

Asqur-Addu / Ashkur-Addu

Son of Samu-Addu. Regained the throne.



Upon the death of Hatnu-rabi of Qattara, Asqur-Addu extends his control to include Qattara, reuniting the kingdom. He hands over the day-to-day control of Qattara to one of his own men, Aqba-Hammu, and marries his sister, Iltani, to the man. However, Aqba-Hammu subsequently usurps the throne of Karana, and Asqur-Addu is forced to take refuge in Mari.


Usurper and king of Qattara.

Aqba-Hammu possibly defeats Sharriya of Razama following a siege.


Wife. Sister of Asqur-Addu. Queen of Qattara.

c.1762 BC

Karana's brief period of independence is ended by Hammurabi of Babylon's occupation of northern Mesopotamia. Karana probably shares Qattara's fortunes, although unlike Qattara, Karana may remain inhabited to the present day.