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European Kingdoms

Eastern Europe

 

 

 

Styria

Styria is situated in the eastern-central of modern-day Austria, between Ostmark and Salzburg. Prior to the arrival of the Romans in the region, it was occupied chiefly by the Celtic Ambidravi and Ambisontes tribes. The Romans incorporated the region into the Noricum province, and following Roman collapse the area was subsequently controlled much the same as its neighbours, by frequent changes of ownership between shifting tribes and kingdoms, before the Germanic Holy Roman empire offered Central Europe some stability. Styria was initially centred on Traungau when the region was elevated to a margraviate in the late ninth century.

Margraves of Styria

880 - 907

Aribo

Also ruled Austria.

907 - c.925

Ottokar I

c.925 - 930

Vacant?

930 - 965

Ottokar II

962

With the accession of the Saxon king, Otto I, the power of the Germanic Roman empire is confirmed. Otto is quite vigorous in establishing new counties and border areas within and without the empire's borders. The county of Ardennes under Sigfried gains the stronghold of Lucilinburhuc (the later Luxemburg), Arnulf I the Elder is restored in Flanders, and the March of Austria is formed from territory already captured from Hungary (around 960).

Map of Germany AD 962
Germany in AD 962 may have had its new emperor to govern the territories shown within the dark black line, but it was still a patchwork of competing interests and power bases, most notably in the five great stem duchies, many of which were attempting to expand their own territories outside the empire, creating the various march or border regions to the east and south (click on map to show full sized)

At the same time, Saxony gains Hermann Billung as its duke, charged with maintaining the duchy's eastern borders and expanding them further to the east, alongside the recently-created North March. Perhaps as a reaction to this or as the culmination of a process that is already heading that way, the duchy of Poland is formed around the same time.

965 - 970

Vacant?

970 - 993

Ottokar III

fl c.1030

Ottokar IV

Died 1038.

1038? - 1047

Vacant?

1047 - 1080

Ottokar V

Died 1083.

1083 - 1084

Vacant?

1084 - 1122

Ottokar VI

Son.

1122

Henry II of Carinthia, also Henry II of Eppenstein, dies without having produced an heir. With him dies the family of Eppenstein in the male line. Only his sister, Hedwig, survives him. Her son, Henry, becomes the next ruling duke of Carinthia through this relationship whilst also holding the title count of Spanheim thanks to his father, Count Engelbert I.

However, at the same time as Henry is acceding to the title, Carinthia is again sub-divided. Initially a substantial border territory between Germany and the Slavs to the east, it has become progressively Germanised and brought under control. With competing dynastic interests and stronger imperial control, various minor seats can be paired off as titles that are subservient directly to the emperor rather than leaving them all under Carinthia's control. Now a large proportion of the former Eppensteiner lands in Upper Styria (on the eastern edge of Carinthia) pass to Ottokar VI. Unfortunately Ottokar is only briefly able to enjoy his expanded domains. He dies in November of the same year.

1122 - 1129

Leopold the Strong

Son.

1129 - 1164

Ottokar VII

Son.

1164 - 1192

Ottokar VIII

1192

The margraviate passes to the Babenburg-controlled duchy of Austria and remains a permanent possession. The duchy of Austria, however, is prone to change hands - from the Babenburgs to the Zahringens to the Przemyslid, and finally to the Habsburgs, who use it as a title for junior members of the dynasty. In December 1282, as Holy Roman Emperor, Rudolph of Habsburg gives the duchies of Habsburg Austria and Styria to his sons, Albert and Rudolf II respectively.