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Middle East Kingdoms

Ancient Mesopotamia

 

 

 

MapFeatures for Ancient MesopotamiaTerqa (State of Hana / Hanna / Khana)

Situated on the valley of the Middle Euphrates some 60 kilometres north of Mari, the population of the relatively minor city of Terqa (modern Tel Ashara) was swelled upon the arrival of Amorite tribes by around 2000 BC. Under Yahdun-Lim and his successors, the city was united with Mari under one ruler to form the state of Hana (encompassing the south-eastern section of modern Syria), as well as supplying a new ruling dynasty for Mari itself.

While Zimri-Lim remained on the throne of Mari, that city remained the capital of Hana, with Terqa replacing it after about 1761 BC. Until Terqa itself was later attacked by Babylon the two city states were approximately equal in size and power. Thereafter, Terqa remained a relatively small city state until the rise of Mitanni, albeit an independent one with international trade connections stretching as far as India, and one which was amongst the most important for the worship of the god Dagan. As the history of Terqa is very confused, so the sequential order of the list of kings is based on the available but limited stratigraphic and textual information.

c.1820 - 1811 BC

Yaggid-Lim / Iagitlim

King of Mari (& Terqa?).

c.1811 - 1795 BC

Yahdun-Lim / Iadhun-Lim / Iakhdunlim

King of Mari & Terqa.

Once Yahdun-Lim rules both Mari and Terqa, the latter city remains tied to Mari until its fall. Terqa's professional soldiers also serve under Mari, mounting guard in the palace, manning local garrisons, keeping order in the desert, and participating in all campaigns.

c.1795 - 1791 BC

Sumu-Yamam

Son. King of Mari & Terqa.

c.1791 - 1776 BC

Having been a vassal state for the lifetime of Shamshi-Adad, following the break-up of the kingdom of Upper Mesopotamia Terqa is restored to independence. Zimri-Lim, returning from exile in Alep (where he had a ruling seat at Alakhtum), takes control in Terqa and neighbouring Mari, leaving a governor in charge of Terqa.

c.1776 - 1761 BC

Zimri-Lim / Zimrilim

Brother. King of Mari, Alakhtum & Terqa.

Kibri-Dagan

Governor of Terqa.

c.1761 BC

Following Babylon's devastation of Mari, power in the Middle Euphrates shifts to Terqa.

Yapakh-Sumu-X

Name partly lost. Dates unknown and position is uncertain.

Ishi-Sumu-Abu

c.1732 - 1730 BC

The Kassites invade Mesopotamia, taking Mari after they are ejected from southern Mesopotamia.

? - c.1725? BC

Yadikh-Abu / Yadih-abum

Became hostile to Babylon and was attacked.

c.1725 - 1690? BC

The state is attacked by Hammurabi's successor in Babylon, Samsu-Iluna, as is an otherwise unknown king called Mutihursh (Mutihurshna), who may have some connection with Mari, Hana or Alalakh, judging by the name construction. However, Hana is not reduced to a petty local kingdom, but retains some power and international standing (although it is unclear whether or not the state is under Babylon's control in this period). About 35 years after Babylon's attack, a Kassite king appears to assume control of the kingdom, indicating an expansion of their area of control.

c.1690 - 1680 BC

Kashtiliashu / Kashtilias

Kashtiliash I of Mari.

c.1680 BC

Following Kashtiliashu's death, the rulers of Hana are different from those in Mari, probably indicating that either they rule independently or that they are perhaps vassals of Mari.

c. 1680 - ? BC

Shunuhru-Ammu

Independent from Mari?

Ammi-madar

c.1650 BC

Terqa's professional soldiers can be found serving in Syria during the reign of Irkabtum of Yamkhad.

After Ammi-madar there may be a break in rule (although it is hard to tell with any certainty). The previous kings are ascribed to the Old Babylonian period (c.1741-1595 BC), while the subsequent kings are assigned to the Middle Babylonian period (c.1595 BC onwards). In c.1595 BC, the Hittites pass through Terqa on their way south to sack Babylon. Their raid ends the political situation that has been holding the Syrian states together, allowing the fledgling empire of Mitanni to rise to power in northern Mesopotamia. It could be possible that this raid also disrupts Hana's political structure, allowing a new dynasty of kings to establish itself.

c.1595? - ? BC

Iddin-Kakka

Probably founded the new dynasty.

Ishar-Lim

Son.

Iggid-Lim

Son.

Isikh-Dagan

Son.

? - c.1450? BC

Hammurapi

Son of Azilia. Usurper?

c.1450 BC

The independent rule of Terqa (and Hana) is ended as Terqa becomes part of the Mitanni empire somewhere around this time, being situated in what is now the empire's central southernmost point on the Euphrates. Once Mitanni began to weaken and collapse from within, it was picked apart by Assyria and the Hittites. The latter conquered many western sections in the 1320s BC under the direction of Suppiluliuma I and assisted by one of his sons, Piyashshili.

c.1320s BC

Once Mitanni begins to weaken and collapse from within, it is picked apart by Assyria and the Hittites. The latter conquers many western sections in the 1320s BC under the direction of Suppiluliuma I and one of his sons, Piyashshili. Those conquered territories are handed to Piyashshili to govern from Carchemish as a state called Ashtata.