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European Kingdoms



Agesinates (Celto-Ligurians)
Incorporating the Cambolectri Atlantici

Prior to domination by Rome, the Alpine region contained various populations which had a complex, obscure, and ethnically-multilayered history. Two major ethnic groups were recorded (aside from intrusions by the Etruscans and Veneti), these being the Euganei on the north Italian plain and the Alpine foothills, and the Raeti in the Trentino and Alto Adige valleys.

There were a great many more minor groups, all of which seem to have formed part of the initial phase of the Golasecca culture. Generally they belonged to one or the other of these though, or to the coastal Ligurians who had gradually penetrated the Alps from the south, but who also extended a considerable way westwards along the Mediterranean coast.

The Ligurians were a people who, before and during the Roman republic period, could be found in north-western Italy. They largely occupied territory which today forms the region of Liguria, extending west into Piedmont to the south of the River Po and even as far as the French Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region. Prior to Roman pressure they may have extended as far as northern Tuscany and across the Pyrenees into Catalonia.

The first century BC writer, Livy (Titus Livius Patavinus), wrote about the initial Celtic breakthrough into Italy through the western Alps, with the story dated to about 600 BC. Continuous waves of Celts followed that path over the next two or three hundred years to create a substantial Celtic population across the north Italian plain. This not only pushed out the previously-dominant Etruscans (through at-least-partially documented warfare), but certainly would also have compressed the main Ligurian population southwards (primarily) towards the coast.

Other Ligurian groups - certainly those in the western Alps - became Celto-Ligurians over time as the powerful newcomers increase dominance over them. More potential Ligurians in the north were compressed into the foothills of the Alps (the Lepontii), perhaps also taking on board a Raeti influx (or vice versa - their story is complicated), while the Vindelici could be found on the opposite side of the Alps.

The Agesinates (not to be confused with the Agenisates) have the same name as the Cambolectri Agesinates of Aquitania. Pliny only mentions this particular unit, however, as the Cambolectri Atlantici of Gallia Transalpina, specifically in Forum Voconi Les Blais (today's Le Cannet des Maures near St Tropez).

Records show that they lived between the Caeniecenses, in oppidum caenica which was actually Salyes territory near Crau, at the foot of the Chaine es Alpilles. Crau is officially La Plaine de la Crau, the dried up delta of the River Durance and thought to be the former confluence of that river and the Rhône) near Arles on the opposite side the Rhône from the Carmargue. The plain, which sits below the Massif de Alpilles, has been popular for its sheep-raising properties for four thousand years, and was also home to similar tribes such as the Anatilli and Avatici.

Also situated on the plain is Aquae Sextiae (today's Aix-en-Provence). A few miles from this is the archaeological site of Entremont, at the foot of the Puyricard. This was once the principal oppidum of the Sayles tribe until it was abandoned in 123 BC when the Romans moved in and replaced with Aquae Sextiae. It seems that the actual battle in 123 BC under the leadership of Gaius Sextius Calvinus on the Roman side took place at Entremont which, like Aix, is on the River Arc.

Across the river are the remains of other oppida, including the oppida of the Salyes of the Test de l'Ost (MImet), and Baou-Roux, which were in contact with the Massaliot outposts (including the oppida of Saint-Marcel, today part of Marseilles, and another oppidum, this time of the Segobriges).

Then follow those of Nerthe (near Marseille) and Berre (Étang de Berre, the lagoon to the north-west of Marseille). To the east are those of Sainte-Victoire. The history of Entremont therefore reveals what was going on in this part of the world prior to the arrival of the Romans.

That still leaves the problem of this tribe, particularly given they were known as the Camboletrici. Did they come from Aquitania or did they flee in that direction following the arrival of the Romans? This is entirely possible if they were herders, with the Plaine de Crau offering ideal sheep-raising ground until modern technology and better irrigation made it more suitable for farming. On the other hand they are not on any acknowledged list of Celto-Ligurian tribes.

The Alps

(Information by Trish Wilson, with additional information from The History of Rome, Volume 1, Titus Livius (translated by Rev Canon Roberts), from The Histories, Herodotus (Penguin, 1996), from Les peuples préromains du Sud-Est de la Gaule: Étude de géographie historique, Guy Barruol (De Boccard, 1999), from Encyclopaedia Britannica (Eleventh Edition, Cambridge (England), 1910), from Encyclopaedia of the Roman Empire, Matthew Bunson (1994), from Die Kelten in Österreich nach den ältesten Berichten der Antike, Gerhard Dobesch (in German), from Urbanizzazione delle campagne nell'Italia antica, Lorenzo Quilici & Stefania Quilici Gigli (in Italian), from La frontiera padana, Mauro Poletti (in Italian), and from External Links: Indo-European Chronology - Countries and Peoples, and Indo-European Etymological Dictionary, J Pokorny, and Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, William Smith (1854, Perseus Digital Library), and The Natural History, Pliny the Elder (John Bostock, Ed), and L'Arbre Celtique (The Celtic Tree, in French), and Historisches Lexikon der Schweiz or Dictionnaire Historique de la Suisse or Dizionario Storico dell Svizzera (in German, French, and Italian respectively), and Le Alpi (Università di Trento).)

c.600 BC

The first century BC writer, Livy (Titus Livius Patavinus), writes of an invasion into Italy of Celts during the reign of Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, king of Rome. This event will reshape the Alpine populations into a pattern which is familiar to Romans of the first century BC.

Ligurian coastline
The Ligurian coastline of modern Italy owes its name to the Ligurian people, a pre-Indo-European grouping which probably consisted of several influences prior to being Latinised by the Romans

As archaeology seems to point to a start date of around 500 BC for the beginning of a serious wave of Celtic incursions into Italy, this event has either been misremembered by later Romans or is an early precursor to the main wave of incursions, probably as a result of the same apparent overpopulation which doubtless forces the start of migration into Iberia around a century earlier than this.

That overpopulation is very evident in Gaul, as this is the direction from which the Celts travel. Their advance into the Po Valley means confrontation with Etruscans who dwell between the Apennines and the Alps.

It also forces the Ligurians southwards, and the ancestors of the Lepontii northwards, while the Raeti also have to relocate, concentrating themselves in the Alps (according to Pliny the Elder).

It is possible that the Ligurian relocation serves to fracture once-large tribes into the many smaller units which are later recorded in the western Alps (and beyond in the case of a potential component of the Cantabri tribe). Celticisation follows relocation to create a swathe of Celto-Ligurian tribes, many of which are located in what is now France, close to the Italian border.

Map of Alpine and Ligurian tribes, c.200-15 BC
The origins of the Euganei, Ligurians, Raeti, Veneti, and Vindelici are confused and unclear, but in the last half of the first millennium BC they were gradually being Celticised or were combining multiple influences to create hybrid tribes (click or tap on map to view full sized)

49 BC

With the Albici confederation constantly descending to the coast to help the beleaguered in Massalia, Julius Caesar now deals with this dual problem once and for all, ending the threat once and for all.

As for the beleaguered Massalia itself, its siege ends when it fully submits to Roman control. The Romans detach the establishment of Antipolis from its metropolis, and grant it the status of city Roman civitas (according to both Pliny and Strabo).

The Roman empire soon unquestionably controls the entire Alpine region - giving it free access to Gaul and Germania. This probably serves to hasten the final decline and disappearance of any non-Indo-European traits, customs, and languages here.

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