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European Kingdoms

Eastern Mediterranean

 

Kingdom of Greece
AD 1830 - 1974
Incorporating Greek State (1924-1925), & Greek Republic (1925-1935)

The first true Greeks were the Mycenaeans. They were part of the South-West Indo-European group of Indo-Europeans, arriving relatively late during the Indo-European migrations, between about 2500-2000 BC. Migrating into Greece from the Balkans, they either dominated or expelled the indigenous Pelasgians, pushing them into the Greek islands. Climate-induced social collapse towards the end of the thirteenth century BC meant large-scale upheaval across the eastern Mediterranean. The Mycenaeans themselves were largely displaced or submerged by new arrivals, the Dorians, whilst surviving in enclaves such as Athens.

Ancient Greece flourished from the seventh century BC, following the end of a short dark age. It reached the height of overseas expansion and power under the Macedonian-led Hellenic empire of Alexander the Great. Subsequently fading, Greece was conquered piecemeal by the Roman republic in the last two centuries BC. From then until the fall of Constantinople in AD 1453, Greece was part of the Roman empire, through to its division as the Eastern Roman empire (Byzantium, the early name for Constantinople). Then the Ottoman empire controlled it until, during the early years of the nineteenth century, the Greeks revolted against their fading power.

The stage was set by the founding of the Filiki Eteria in 1814, a secret organisation which had the independence of Greece as its aim. One of its leaders was Alexander Ypsilanti, grandson of a former prince of the Danubian principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia. Several revolts were planned across Greece and the first of them was launched on 6 March 1821, in the Danubian principalities. It was put down by the Ottomans, but the torch had been lit and by the end of the same month the Peloponnese was in open revolt.

With the Greeks finding a good deal of success in their fight against the Ottoman Turks, it was the modernised Egyptian army under Muhammed Ali which was ordered by Constantinople to sail to Greece to put a stop to their efforts. Popular European support of the revolt led to the Russians, French, and British sending a fleet which sank the Egyptians at Navarino in 1827. This was the last serious threat to Greek efforts, and independence was fully established by 1830. The Peloponnese - and the entire Balkans - remained unstable however. The Greek kingship was subject to enormous pressures, both internal and external as the chaos of failing Ottoman control led to the establishment of independent Balkan states.

The king was overthrown in 1924, with the monarchy being replaced by the short-lived Greek State in 1924-1925 and then the marginally longer-lived Greek Republic in 1925-1935 (the republican period is backed below in light blue). This suffered at least two major military coups, the second bringing the republic to an end and reintroducing the monarchy which then held on until 1974. Modern Greeks are partial descendants of the ancient Greeks, but infused with Roman and Turkic settlers from throughout these empires and with a large addition of barbarian Celts, Germanics, and probably some Slavs as well.

Ancient Greek frieze

(Information by Peter Kessler and the John De Cleene Archive, with additional information from A History of Thessaly: From the Earliest Historical Times to the Accession of Philip V of Macedonia, Ronald Grubb Kent ((Press of the New Era Printing Company, 1904, available via the Internet Archive), from The Ottoman Empire: A Historical Encyclopaedia, Mehrdad Kia (two volumes), from The Founder of Modern Egypt: A Study of Muhammal 'Ali, Henry Dodwell (Cambridge University Press, 1967), and from External Links: BBC Country Profiles, and Last king of Greece dies (The Guardian), and General Theodoros Pangalos (Greek City Times).)

1821 - 1823

Alexander Ypsilanti

Led early revolt. Grandson of Alex Ypsilanti of Wallachia.

1821 - 1827

The Greek War of Independence (otherwise known as the Greek Revolution) begins against rule by the Ottoman empire. Open revolt in the Peloponnese in March 1821 swiftly turns into a declaration of war against the occupiers. Revolts quickly spring up in central Greece, Crete, and Macedonia, although these are suppressed, but a makeshift Greek navy prevents Ottoman reinforcements from being landed in the country.

Muhammed Ali brings Egyptian forces into the conflict in 1825 and much of the revolt is put down. However, the Egyptian fleet is sunk at the Battle of Navarino in 1827 by a fleet which consists of Russian, French, and British vessels.

'The Camp of Georgios Karaiskakis' by Theodoros Vryzakis
'The Camp of Georgios Karaiskakis' as depicted in 1855 by Theodoros Vryzakis, illustrating the Greek nationalist encampment during its campaigns against the ruling Ottoman empire in the mid-1820s

1826 - 1827

Georgios Karaiskakis

Commander-in-chief. Killed in action on 23 April.

1827

The Treaty of London is signed, in which Britain, France, and Russia support Greek independence. As a consequence, following the freeing of central Greece in 1828, the beginnings of an independent state are created.

The Greek national assembly elects Count Ioannis Kapodistrias as the country's regent (head of state) while its political future is negotiated in Europe and the fighting against the Ottoman empire continues. In Greece itself, conflicts have already sprung up between various factions, resulting in two minor civil wars.

1827 - 1830

Count Ioannis Kapodistrias

Regent. From Corfu. First governor (from 1830).

1828 - 1829

The Russo-Turkish War, which is triggered by the fighting in Greece and the Danubian principalities, ends in the Peace of Adrianople. The London Conference in 1830 recognises Greek independence, putting forward Landgrave Philip of Hessen-Homburg as a potential king (supported by Russia but opposed by France). The regent, Ioannis Kapodistrias of Corfu, is selected as the first governor of the new republic, but he is soon assassinated.

July Revolution of 1830
The July Revolution of 1830 in France fed on long-held and growing resentments and inequalities, while also sparking several smaller but similar revolts across Europe

1830 - 1831

Count Ioannis Kapodistrias

Former regent. First governor of Greece. Assassinated.

1831 - 1832

Augustinos Kapodistrias

Brother. Succeeded as governor. In office for six months.

1832

Under the terms of the Convention of London, Prince Otto of the Bavarian Wittelsbachs ascends the newly-created throne of Greece while still a minor, carrying the title 'King of the Hellenes'. He initially rules under the guidance of a three-man regency council, but they prove unpopular and are dismissed. Otto then rules as an absolute monarch.

1832 - 1862

Otto of Bavaria

Brother of king of Bavaria. First king of Greece. Dethroned.

1843

An armed but peaceful uprising forces the authoritarian king to grant the country a constitution and a parliament. The country is proving to be difficult to govern thanks to its financial impoverishment and the conflicting interests of its protectors, the great powers.

1862

Otto's authoritarianism and his poor standing amongst Greeks leads to him being dethroned by the Greek national assembly while he is away in the countryside. A replacement is selected. The young Prince William of Denmark ascends the throne as George I and brings with him the Ionian Islands as a gift from Great Britain.

Trikoupis satirical cartoon of 1895
The more things change, the more they stay the same... as evidenced by this satirical political cartoon of 1895 which shows Trikoupis and his main rival, Theodoros Deligiannis, with the flag stating 'down with taxes, up with loans!'

1863 - 1913

George I / Prince William

Elder brother of Frederick VIII of Denmark. Assassinated.

1877

The power of the monarchy is diminished when Prime Minister Charilaos Trikoupis curbs its ability to interfere in the workings of the assembly. During the course of several short-lived, unstable governments, the prime minister is also able to initiate reforms which herald the start of modern parliamentary politics in the country.

1903

Andrew

Son. m Alice of Hessen-Battenberg.

1905 - 1906

Eleutherios Venizelos, the 'Lion of Crete', wins the independence of his island from the Ottomans in 1905. With support from Great Britain, which maintains close and friendly relations with Greece, George's son, also George, has been governor-general of Crete between 1897-1906. He resigns in 1906 following a campaign by Venizelos, the leader of the Cretan Assembly. Crete votes for union with Greece in 1908.

1913

The First Balkan War brings Greek victory in the capture and permanent possession of Salonika (modern Thessaloniki - the second largest city in Greece), just beating a Bulgarian force which had also aimed at capturing it. The area and population of Greece is doubled by its gains. After the longest reign of any Greek monarch, whilst walking in the city George I is assassinated on 18 March.

Salonika front during the First World War
The First World War came to Greece in the form of an allied base at Salonika so that the Austrian army in Serbia could be opposed in one of the toughest and most horrific of fronts, during a campaign which has largely been forgotten

1913 - 1917

Constantine I

Brother of Andrew. Abdicated.

1915

Persuaded to join the allied cause of Britain, France, and Russia, the Greek prime minister, Eleutherios Venizelos, attempts to end Greek neutrality. However, he has overestimated the strength of his position at home.

On 5 October he is dismissed from office by the king who, apart from being the German kaiser's brother-in-law, wishes to preserve Greece's neutrality. That neutrality cannot be enforced militarily, though, and Britain and France land an expeditionary force which turns Salonika into a vast allied base from which they can attack the Austrian forces in Serbia.

1916 - 1917

Venizelos returns to politics, forming a government at Salonika which Britain recognises as legitimate. The following year, King Constantine abdicates in favour of his son, and Venizelos is able to resume his post with popular support.

1917 - 1920

Alexander

Second son of Constantine I. Died after a freak accident.

1920 - 1922

Constantine I

Restored. Abdicated 17 Sep 1922. Died in exile 4 mths later.

1920 - 1922

Continuing attempts to seize a large section of western Anatolia from the Ottoman empire, Venizelos prolongs a war which lasts for eight years. Turkish troops capture Smyrna on 10 September 1922, massacring the Greek population and ending the Greek-Turkish War.

After having colonised western Turkey and founding a state called Ahhiyawa some three thousand years before, at the end of the Mycenaean period, all Greeks are now expelled from Turkey. Many of them have been Turkish in all but name for generations and are not able to speak Greek at all.

Map of Anatolia c.1450 BC
Whilst this map concentrates principally on neighbouring Arzawa to show a rough estimation of its borders at the kingdom's height, it also clearly shows the approximate location of Ahhiyawa which, if anything, is even more mysterious than the little-recorded Arzawa (click or tap on map to view full sized)

Greece's population suddenly increases by about a million and-a-half, which brings with it problems of its own. The unpopular Constantine abdicates in favour of another of his sons.

1922 - 1924

George II

First son of Constantine I. Deposed and exiled.

1923 - 1924

A failed coup in October 1923 results in the king being requested to leave the country by the 'Revolutionary Committee'. He does so, and a republic is proclaimed on 25 March 1924 which abolishes the monarchy and confiscates its property. George moves first to Rumania, his wife's home, and then to Great Britain. In his absence,

1924 - 1935

During the reign of George II, the possibility exists that a military committee had formed the real government, although information seems unclear in this regard. Now Greece has been declared a republic under the name of the Greek State.

Paul Kountouriotis, former regent between October and November 1920 during the process of returning Constantine I to the throne, and again during King George's absence in 1923-1924, becomes the provisional head of state.

1924 - 1925

Paul Koutouriotis

Provisional head of state for the Greek State.

1925

Greece remains unstable, with frequent changes of government (twenty-three) and thirteen coups over the next decade. The 'Greek State' becomes the 'Greek Republic', with Paul Kountouriotis as the first, but provisional, president.

Theodoros Pangalos
Lieutenant-General Theodoros Pangalos was a Greek soldier, politician, and dictator, a staff officer, an ardent Venizelist, and an anti-royalist, playing a leading role in the September 1922 revolt which deposed King Constantine I and in the establishment of the 'Second Hellenic Republic' while also, in June 1925, staging a bloodless coup and assuming power until being overthrown in August 1926

1925 - 1926

Paul Koutouriotis

Provisional president of the Greek republic until Mar 1926.

1926

Theodoros Pangalos

Military officer. Led a coup, but overthrown by Kondylis.

1926

Theodore Pangalos

Acting president (Mar-Apr). President (Apr-Aug). Removed.

1926 - 1929

Paul Koutouriotis

Provisional president (Aug 1926-Jun 1929).

1929 - 1935

Alexander Zaimis

Acting (10-14 Dec 1929). President (Dec 1929-Oct 1935).

1935

Georgios Kondylis

Military officer. Re-established the monarchy. Killed in 1936.

1934 - 1935

Romania, Yugoslavia, Greece, and Turkey sign the Balkan Pact in 1934. This aims to limit Bulgarian expansion. Bulgaria befriends Germany and Italy in an attempt to counterbalance this alliance.

In Greece, though, Georgios Kondylis, a military general seizes, control in 1935 and ends the republic. The kingdom of Greece is restored on 10 October 1935. Kondylis becomes president of the 'Ministerial Council' and regent of the restored kingdom. Between 1935 and 1973 the official royal title is 'King of the Greeks (Hellenes)'.

1935 - 1941

George II

Restored. Evacuated during the German invasion.

1940

George II and his prime minister have overseen the creation of a strongly fascist state which has links to Nazi Germany and fascist Italy. However, the king also has links to Great Britain, and when Italy demands to be allowed to station troops in Greece, he refuses. The resultant Greco-Italian War is a victory for Greece, with southern Albania also being occupied.

Greek troops in World War II
While Greece's Second World War efforts against the Italians were a resounding success, German involvement brought a completely new level of warfare to the country, one which it could not resist at first

1941 - 1944

Nazi Germany is forced to intervene thanks to the poor showing by its unreliable Italian ally. The Greeks, aided by British expeditionary troops, cannot match the firepower of the invaders.

Greece is occupied (from the British point of view the exercise is meant to show that it stands, almost alone, against Germany even if this particular campaign has been unwinnable). The king is evacuated first to Crete and, when that falls to Germany, to Egypt. From there he returns to Britain. The country's population of Romaniote Jews is heavily decimated by the subsequent Nazi purge.

1944 - 1947

Following the German withdrawal in 1944, the Greek Civil War is triggered. It is fuelled partly by the poverty endured by the ex-Turkish Greeks and the grievances they have brought with them, and partly by tensions between communists and their opponents. The Greek monarchy is only just about reinstated and George II sits on the throne for a third time.

1944 - 1946

Archbishop Damaskinos

Regent. Archbishop of Athens.

1946 - 1947

George II

Restored for a second time.

1947

Philip Mountbatten

Son of Andrew. m Queen Elizabeth II of Great Britain.

1947 - 1964

Paul

Brother of George II. Died in Athens.

1947 - 1949

In December 1947, the Communist Party of Greece declares a provisional democratic government in those areas of northern Greece which are under the party's control. This government, like previous communist governments, is also known as a 'mountain government'.

The coronation of Queen Elizabeth II 1953
Elizabeth II and Philip, duke of Edinburgh, on the balcony of Buckingham Palace following the queen's coronation on 2 June 1953 - between them stand the young Prince Charles and Princess Anne

In August 1949 the last remnants of this communist government are driven out of Greece. Nikolaos Zachariadis, the communist party leader, retains his position in exile until 1956.

1952

Greece becomes a member of Nato during its transition from political association to integrated military structure, a necessity made apparent by the perceived increase in threat level from communist states during the Korean War.

1962

Sophia

Sister. Married King Juan Carlos of Spain.

1964 - 1973

Constantine II

Son. Became an exile in 1967. Deposed 1973.

1964 - 1965

Upon accession the youthful Olympic gold medallist, Constantine II, is hugely popular. Within a year much of his support has been squandered through his active involvement in machinations which bring down the popularly-elected 'Center Union' government of prime minister George Papandreou. The event remains embedded in the public consciousness as the 'apostasy'.

1967

Backed by the United States, the army leads a coup which establishes a dictatorship. Georgios Zoitakis, Georgios Papadopoulos, and Dimitrios Ioannides are all leading figures in the coup, but the latter prefers to take a back seat, becoming instead the chief of the military police.

Constantine II tries to organise a counter-coup which not only fails, but also alienates whatever support he may have with the military leaders. He is forced to flee the country. The monarchy is abolished in 1973 by Georgios Papadopoulos, but the king continues to claim an hereditary title in Greece.

Nicosia being bombed in 1974
The failure by Greek and Turkish Cypriots to cooperate in 1964 led directly to the 1974 bloodshed which involved a Turkish invasion of northern Cyprus and the bombing of Nicosia shown here

1967 - 1972

Georgios Zoitakis

Military officer. Regent.

1972 - 1973

Georgios Papadopoulos

Military officer. Regent (1972-1973). President (1973).

1973

The Athens Polytechnic uprising which shows popular support for ending the rule of the Greek military junta is brutally suppressed on 17 November. The levels of violence used to end the uprising send shockwaves through Greece. A counter-coup is organised against Papadopoulos, with the result that Dimitrios Ioannides becomes dictator.

1973 - 1974

Dimitrios Ioannides

Military officer. Began moving towards democracy.

1974

The Greek dictatorship makes a failed attempt to invade Cyprus and bring it under direct Greek rule. Not only does the invasion fail, it prompts the Turkish government to invade the eastern side of Cyprus (memorable images of Turkish parachutists being dropped onto the island are widespread in western news media broadcasts). The fallout created by all of this brings down the dictatorship and the modern democratic Greek republic is declared.

Modern Greece
AD 1974 - Present Day
Incorporating Heads of State (1974-2022)

The modern Hellenic Republic was brought into being on 11 June 1975, following a referendum which confirmed the abolition of the former monarchy of the 'Kingdom of Greece'. The republic borders Albania, North Macedonia, and Bulgaria to the north (which incorporates much, but not all, of ancient Thrace), while Turkey faces it across the Aegean Sea. The Ionian Islands and most of those in the Aegean are also part of the Greek state.

The territory of ancient Greece stretched quite some way further afield than the modern borders. It was home to various Mycenaean and then Greek city states during the end of the second millennium BC and throughout the first millennium BC respectively. The people who created and ruled these states were not only Indo-Europeans, they also intermingled with the preceding native population. This included a large number of descended Neolithic farmer groups of Old Europe, people who had founded the Sesklo culture in Greece around 6700 BC and who may have later been represented by the Pelasgians. Conquest by Rome saw them become part of an empire which governed the region for the next millennium and-a-half, until the fall of Byzantium at Ottoman hands in 1453. Greek independence followed in the early 1800s.

The last king of modern Greece, Constantine II, went into exile on 13 December 1967, with his constitutional role being taken by 'regents' (in effect dictators) who were appointed by the military junta in Greece. It wasn't until 1 June 1973 that the junta officially abolished the monarchy, replacing it with a republic which was headed by a president. Constantine never officially abdicated his throne, but towards the end of his life he was allowed free access into and out of Greece (he and his titular successors are shown below with a shaded background).

The dictatorship which was briefly established in his place made a failed attempt to conquer Cyprus by invading it in 1974. Not only did the invasion fail, it prompted the Turkish government to invade the eastern side of Cyprus. The fallout created by all this brought down the dictatorship and allowed the modern democratic Greek republic to be declared. However, when democracy was restored in 1974, a referendum was held in which nearly seventy percent of Greeks stated a preference for the abolition of the monarchy.

Ancient Greek frieze

(Information by Peter Kessler and the John De Cleene Archive, with additional information from The Ottoman Empire: A Historical Encyclopaedia, Mehrdad Kia (two volumes), from The Founder of Modern Egypt: A Study of Muhammal 'Ali, Henry Dodwell (Cambridge University Press, 1967), from Encyclopaedia Britannica (Eleventh Edition, Cambridge (England), 1910), from Kingdoms of Europe, Gene Gurney (New York, 1982), from Hammond Historical Atlas (Maplewood, New Jersey, 1963), from Historical Atlas of the World, R R Palmer (Ed, Chicago, 1963), from Times Atlas of World History, Geoffrey Barraclough (Ed, Maplewood, New Jersey, 1979), from Washington Post (Letters, 19 April 1998, 5 April 1999, 28 June 1999, 4 November 2002 (Obituary of Michalis Stasinopoulos), 18 June 2018 (Greece and Macedonia seal name-change deal after decades-long dispute), 12 January 2019 (Digest), 26 January 2019 (Greece agrees to name change for Macedonia), and from External Links: BBC Country Profiles, and A History of Thessaly: From the Earliest Historical Times to the Accession of Philip V of Macedonia, Ronald Grubb Kent ((Press of the New Era Printing Company, 1904, available via the Internet Archive), and The Greeks really do have near-mythical origins, ancient DNA reveals (Science), and Macedonia agrees to name change (The Week), and Republic of North Macedonia born amid mass protests (The Week), and Last king of Greece dies (The Guardian), and Rulers, and Barcelona Centre for International Affairs (CIDOB), and Violent protests in Greece (The Guardian).)

1974 - 2023

Constantine II

Exile. Born 2 June 1940. Former king of Greece. Died at 82.

1974 - 1975

Michalis Stasinopoulos

President ten days after anti-monarchy referendum.

1975 - 1980

Constantine Tsatsos

Parliamentary-elected president. ND Party.

1980 - 1985

Constantine Karamanlis

President. ND Party (until 10 Mar 1985).

1981

Greece becomes a member of the European Economic Community, the forerunner of the European Community and the European Union. Despite many concerns about the country joining, Greece's entry is a way to ensure democracy and stability in Southern Europe at the height of the cold war.

Greek PM Constantinos Karamanlis signs the accession treaty to the EEC
Greek Prime Minister Constantinos Karamanlis signs the accession treaty to the European Economic Community in 1981, the forerunner to the European Community and European Union

1985

Ioannis Alevras

Acting. Panhellenic Socialist Movement (PASOK).

1985 - 1990

Christos Sartzetakis

President from 29 Mar. No Party.

1990 - 1995

Constantine Karamanlis

President. ND Party.

1991

Yugoslavia's Macedonia region declares independence from the crumbling state. Greece objects to the name which is subsequently adopted for the region - the 'Republic of Macedonia' - as well as its flag on the grounds that both imply territorial claims to the neighbouring Greek province of Macedonia. The argument will rumble on for over two decades, although relations are normalised in 1995. Macedonia is henceforth known as the 'Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia' (FYROM).

1994

The country's socialist government strips King Constantine of his Greek nationality and expropriates what remains of the royal family's property. Constantine sues at the European court of human rights and is awarded twelve million euros in 2002, a fraction of the five hundred million he had sought.

1995 - 2005

Kostis Stephanopoulos

President. No Party.

1999

On 7 September a massive earthquake, registering 6.0, strikes from a previously unknown geological fault at a point approximately seventeen kilometres north of Athens. It causes widespread structural damage and kills 143 people. Taking place less than a month after a similar earthquake in Turkey, the Turks supply aid and rescue teams, which contributes significantly to a thaw in relations between the two countries.

Greek earthquake 1999
From the ruins of the 1999 earthquake came improved relations with neighbouring Turkey after years of mutual hostility following events which surrounded Cyprus in the 1970s

2000 - 2002

In June 2000, senior British diplomat Brigadier Stephen Saunders is shot dead in Athens by the left-wing guerrilla group, 'November 17'. In July 2002, the group's suspected leader and other members are arrested after one of them is injured, allegedly by his own bomb, and provides information to the police. The subsequent trial ends with prison sentences for all of the suspects.

2005 - 2015

Karolos Papoulias

President. PASOK.

2008

An opinion poll which is conducted in Greece finds that fewer than twelve percent of Greeks favour a return to a constitutional monarchy and the 'Kingdom of Greece'. More than forty-three percent of people asked still blame ex-King Constantine II for the coming of the military junta which itself caused so many problems.

2009 - 2013

Greece's credit rating is downgraded in December 2009 by one of the world's three leading rating agencies amid fears that the government may default on its ballooning debt. The worldwide credit crisis which had begun in the United States in 2007 is really biting by this stage. Tough austerity measures are introduced amid mass protests and strikes.

Protest gathering against Greek austerity
In 2009 international credit ratings agencies downgraded Greek debt after Athens revealed that the public deficit was at 12.7 percent of GDP, breaking a three-percent threshold which had been set by the eurozone's 'Stability and Growth Pact'

The problem becomes a rumbling issue with the EU as Greece accepts successive bailouts via the European Financial Stability Facility. The Greek parliament passes the 2014 budget in December 2013, which is predicated on a return to growth after six years of recession. Now-current Prime Minister Samaras hails this as the first decisive step towards exiting the bailout (Greece's credit rating is upgraded in 2018).

2015 - 2020

Prokopis Pavlopoulos

President. New Democracy (ND).

2018

The 'Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia' (FYROM) agrees to change its name in July 2018, bringing to an end the long dispute with neighbouring Greece. It will now be known as Severna Makedonija, or the republic of North Macedonia, providing a sufficient difference from the neighbouring Greek province of Macedonia to be acceptable to Greece itself. Greek Prime Minister Alexis Tsipras survives a vote of no confidence to sign the accompanying accord with Northern Macedonia.

2020 - On

Ekaterini Sakellaropoulou

First female president. Former high court judge. No Party.

2022

A sixteen year-old Romany boy refuels his vehicle at a petrol station before allegedly driving off without paying on Monday 5 December. He is chased by the police in Thessaloniki, Greece's second-largest city, being shot in the head during the chase. Although the officer in question is quickly arrested and suspended for unauthorised use of his weapon, the act is just the latest in a number which involve the Romany community.

Protests against the shooting of a Romany boy turn violent
Fires which burned on the road outside a main hospital in Thessaloniki on Monday 5 December 2022 were lit by a group of Romany men, but plenty of the city's Greek inhabitants were equally enraged by the needless shooting

Actions by angry Roma in the city and a protest march which involves about fifteen hundred people lead to police retaliation with tear gas and stun grenades. Several hundred people also take part in a peaceful protest march in central Athens over the shooting, as well as over a past incident in which a Romany man had been shot during a police chase.

2023 - Present

Crown Prince Paul / Pavlos

Son. Born 20 May 1967.

Prince Constantine Alexios

Son and heir. Born 29 October 1998.

 
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