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Near East Kingdoms

Ancient Levantine States


Edom / Udumi (Canaan)

In the mid-third millennium BC, city states began to appear in Syria as people benefited from interaction with Sumer and from improvements in irrigation. Within five hundred years, around 2000 BC, the same process was happening farther south and west, in the Levant, along the Mediterranean coast. Semitic-speaking Canaanite tribes occupied much of the area, creating a patchwork of city states of their own. The Phoenicians (more Canaanites) also occupied parts of this region, eventually founding their own mighty seaborne trading empire.

The kingdom of Edom was supposedly founded by a branch of the early Israelites, taking in the territory which is centred around Mount Seir, from the Brook of Zered to the Sinai peninsula (the Negev Desert and the Arabah Valley, near the Dead Sea and in modern Jordan). The border between Edom and its Moabite neighbour to the north was the Wadi Zered, while the kingdom's capital was often (but not always) at Bozrah (modern Buseirah in Jordan), a pastoral city which is located to the south-east of the Dead Sea.

The name Edom has a connection with the colour red, with 'red rock' after the region's reddish sandstone perhaps being the favourite reason (note the red cliffs of Seir, for example). To the later Assyrians the state was Udumi, a regional pronunciation of 'Edom', while in Latin it was Idumea (another direct variant of 'Edom'). All of these, including the original version, seem to be variations of the Egyptian name which means 'the red land'.

Akkadian sources which date to the kingdom's earliest years of existence mention nomadic groups along the Trans-Jordanian highlands whom the Assyrians termed Shutu. These groups extended deep into Mesopotamia, probably occupying the edges of the habitable zone there. Speculation about the Shutu mentions that the name may be a variant of the Egyptian term 'Shasu', Semitic cattle-herding nomads who operated in a clan system with tribal chieftains. These people later disappeared, but they may have formed part of the make-up of Edom and perhaps other nearby states as well.

It seems the Edomites and the Moabites remained in Old Testament Canaan while the Israelites supposedly emigrated to ' Second Intermediate' period Egypt in the seventeenth century BC. Both kingdoms are recorded by the Old Testament as having resisted the Israelite return, which would have taken place around four hundred years later. However, while the Canaanite occupants of early Palestine to the south-west of Edom are usually accepted as the source for the Hyksos invaders of Egypt about 1700 BC, Edom has been put forward as an alternative candidate. If that is the case then the Israelites may have followed an already-extant migratory trail.

Edomite succession was apparently not hereditary. Instead it may have been elective (the practise is not unknown in ancient Syria and Canaan). A good source of the kingdom's wealth was the fact that Edom lay along the 'King's Highway', an important north-south trade route between Egypt, Syria, and Mesopotamia. Some scholars refuse to believe Edom existed as a state at all, while there is little evidence of a settled society before the eleventh century BC, roughly the same time period in which the early kingdom of Israel was being created.

Phoenicians shifting cedarwood from shore to land

(Information by Peter Kessler, with additional information from Unger's Bible Dictionary, Merrill F Unger (1957), from Easton's Bible Dictionary, Matthew George Easton (1897), from Egypt, Canaan and Israel in Ancient Times, Donald Redford (Princeton University Press, 1992), from Early Israel and the Surrounding Nations, A H Sayce, from Jewish War & Jewish Antiquities, Flavius Josephus, from The Amarna Letters, William L Moran, 1992, from the Illustrated Dictionary & Concordance of the Bible, Geoffrey Wigoder (Gen Ed, 1986), and from External Links: Encyclopædia Britannica, and Time Maps, and Ancient History Encyclopaedia, and Ancient kingdom of Edom (Sky News).)

fl c.1700 BC


Elder son of Isaac of the Israelites. First king of Edom.

c.1700 BC

According to the Old Testament, the Edomites under Esau displace the apparently primitive Horites to claim their kingdom. This population is probably one of nomadic, cattle-herding pastoralists, just like the Emim and Rephaim Zuzim (probably one and the same) who are being shunned or absorbed elsewhere. Mount Seir is identified with a Horite leader of the same name, with the possibility that the area is of religious importance to them.

Map of Anatolia and Environs 1550 BC
Small cities and minor states which had been founded by the Hittites littered the meeting point between Anatolia and Syria around 1500 BC (click or tap on map to view full sized)

The following clans form the new Edomite nation (although perhaps they do not all form at the same time): Aholibamah, Alvah, Elah, Iram, Jetheth, Kenaz, Magdiel, Mibzar, Pinon, Teman (perhaps the primary Edomite tribe, led by Esau's grandson of the same name), and Timnah (seemingly bearing a link to Timna, concubine of Eliphaz). These names appear to be those of chiefs of Edom from the twelfth century BC, each of whom apparently leads a clan of his own.

fl c.1680? BC


Son. His concubine, Timna, was a Horite.

c.1660s? BC

One of the sons of Eliphaz is Amalek, with his mother being Timna, the Horite, previous occupants of the Edomite territories. Amalek is 'chief of Amalek', suggesting that he leads a division of Edomites who become known as the Amalekites. These people live on the edge of habitable territory, pursuing a nomadic life in the Negev Desert to the immediate south of modern Israel.

fl c.1660? BC

Teman (I)

Son. Half-Horite. Leader of the clan of Teman.

fl c.1640? BC

Bela ben-Be'or

First elective king. Ruled from the city of Dinhabah.

fl c.1610? BC

Jobab / Yovav ben-Zerach

Son of Zerah. Great-grandson of Esau. Ruled from Bozrah.

17th cent BC

An Egyptian execration text dated to the seventeenth century BC refers to an 'Ayyab' as king of the Shutu. The name is possibly a variant form of 'Job', with Jobab of Edom being a handy candidate. However, tentative identification of the mysterious Shutu has linked them with the Moabites and Ammonites to the north of Edom.

Possible location of Edom
While some scholars continued to insist that the lack of historical evidence for an Edomite state meant that there was no such state at all, some of the required archaeological proof may have been unearthed in 2019 (see sources, above)

fl c.1580? BC

Husham / Chusham

Ruled from the city of Temani (of the Teman clan?).

fl c.1560? BC

Hadad ben-Bedad

Moved capital from Temani to Avith. Defeated Moabites.

fl c.1540? BC

Samlah / Smlah

Ruled from the city of Masrekah.

fl c.1520? BC


Ruled from the city of Rehoboth.

fl c.1480? BC

Baal-hanan / Ba'al hana ben-Akhbor

Son of Skhbor. 'Baal-hanan' means 'By the grace of Baal'.

fl c.1460? BC

Hadar / Hada

Ruled from the city of Pau / P'ai.

1453 - c.1200 BC

Egypt reasserts its authority in the region by conquering territory in the Levant. While Edom may or may not be in its line of conquest, it seems possible that it does indeed become a client state or a controlled trading partner. Hadar himself is claimed as the last king of Edom, which adds to the suspicion that that the kingdom is subjugated.

In 1286/1258 BC Ramses II of Egypt reaches a stalemate in his territorial tussle with the Hittites at the Battle of Kadesh, after which the earliest known peace treaty is signed, in 1258 BC. Ramses limits his control to southern Canaan (early Palestine), where he draws a firm and fortified boundary.

Habu relief at Medinet
Attacks by the Sea Peoples gathered momentum during the last decade of the thirteenth century BC, quickly reaching a peak which lasted about forty years

c.1200 BC

This is the period of Israelite settlement after the traditional exodus from Egypt. At this time, there is general instability in the region: the Hittite empire is destroyed in Anatolia, the Canaanites begin to be reduced to owning the shores of Lebanon (eventually to become the sea traders known as the Phoenicians), the Philistines and other Sea Peoples are first settling on the lower coast of the Levant, and various neo-Hittite city states are arising in northern Syria, many of which come into contact with the Israelites.

The Edomites seemingly manage to shake off much of Egyptian control over them, re-establishing themselves - at least - as a semi-independent group on the eastern side of the Dead Sea. With the old line of elected kings seemingly swept away a quarter of a millennium beforehand, the current crop of Edomite leaders are classed as chieftains only.

Chiefs of Edom (Canaan)

City states began to appear in Syria in the third millennium BC. By the start of the second millennium BC the same was happening in the Levant, along the Mediterranean coast. Semitic-speaking Canaanite tribes created a patchwork of city states of their own, while the later-appearing Phoenicians (more Canaanites) also founded their own mighty seaborne trading empire.

Although concentrated more in Syria and extending down into Mesopotamia, the Amorites also occupied areas of northern Canaan. They founded the island state of Arvad around 2000 BC. They also invaded and gained control of Gebal, dominating other small cities along the coastal strip which forms modern Lebanon, while other cities such as Sidon remained free of Amorite influence.

Disaster struck in the form of the social collapse at the end of the thirteenth century BC. Climate-induced drought and famine triggered large-scale population movements in the Near East, along with wholesale looting and raiding, principally by the Sea Peoples. Descended from the Canaanite inhabitants who formerly dominated the entire Levantine region, the post-collapse Edomites probably still thought of themselves as Canaanites, and they still occupied the same territory to the east and south of the Dead Sea. Egyptian control of the Levant had weakened considerably.

It seems that the Edomites now regained a degree of self-governance, under a new 'dynasty' of chiefs. Whether there was any relationship between each of these chiefs is unknown, as is the possibility of links back to Hadar and the other elective kings of earlier Edom. In fact, almost nothing is known of them, other than through the Old Testament. When the Israelites supposedly returned from Egypt, the king of Edom refused them access via his territory but did not fight them. However, both sides prepared for a conflict they knew was coming.

Phoenicians shifting cedarwood from shore to land

(Information by Peter Kessler, with additional information from Unger's Bible Dictionary, Merrill F Unger (1957), from Easton's Bible Dictionary, Matthew George Easton (1897), from Egypt, Canaan and Israel in Ancient Times, Donald Redford (Princeton University Press, 1992), from Early Israel and the Surrounding Nations, A H Sayce, from Jewish War & Jewish Antiquities, Flavius Josephus, from the Illustrated Dictionary & Concordance of the Bible, Geoffrey Wigoder (Gen Ed, 1986), and from External Links: Encyclopædia Britannica, and Time Maps, and Ancient History Encyclopaedia, and Ancient kingdom of Edom (Sky News).)

fl c.1200 BC


Fought the returning Israelites.

c.1200 BC

The name Timnah suggests the possibility of a link to Timna the Horite, mother to Amalek, namesake of the Amalekites. More likely though is that it results from a more general connection to the clan of Timnah, one of the original Edomite clans. Even more likely, it refers to the settlement of Timnah which unites to oppose the Israelites.

Habu relief at Medinet
Attacks by the Sea Peoples gathered momentum during the last decade of the thirteenth century BC, quickly reaching a peak which lasted about forty years

Could a list of successive chiefs be misread or entered into the Old Testament during its compilation from the sixth century BC onwards, making them all co-extant 'sons of Esau', and therefore sons of Edom?

Aliah / Alvah

A clan chief of the Edomites.


A clan chief of the Edomites.

Oholibamah / Aholibamah

A clan chief of the Edomites.


A clan chief of the Edomites.


A clan chief of the Edomites.


A clan chief of the Edomites.

Teman (II)

A clan chief of the Edomites.


A clan chief of the Edomites.

fl c.1015 BC


A clan chief of the Edomites. Defeated by Saul of Israel.

c.1015? BC

Saul of Israel defeats Nahash, king of Ammon, after the citizens of the frontier city of Jabesh-Gilead call for assistance against the Ammonite army. He also hands Edom a defeat and possibly makes it a vassal of Israel. The ruler of the Amalekites is spared by him but Samuel, the former Israelite Judge, executes him anyway.

Israelites and Amalekites in battle
This image depicts a battle between the Israelites and the Amalekites, as created by Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld (1860), and representing a scene from Exodus (17.8-16)

fl c.975 BC


Defeated by David of Israel. Last independent chief of Edom.

fl c.975? BC


Prince of Edom. Escaped to Egypt.

c.975? BC

David of Israel leads his people to subdue the Philistines, regaining Jerusalem from a Jebusite king and making the city his capital. David also permanently subdues Edom, making it a dependency of Israel. Governors are placed in control of the former kingdom. To achieve any of this, David has first to subdue Goliath, the giant champion of the Philistines.

c.928 BC

Because he fails to heed the demands of the Israelite people to rescind Solomon's heavy tax and labour demands, the ten tribes of the north refuse to accept Rehoboam as their new king at the confirmation ceremony at Shechem. Civil war ensues. Rehoboam is left with just the tribes of Judah and Benjamin in the south as the kingdom divides into Samaria (Israel) and Judah. Edom remains a Judean dependency.

fl 853 BC


Governor? Allied to the king of Samaria.

853 BC

The governor or chief of Edom is a member of an alliance of states which also includes Ammon, Arqa, Arvad, Byblos, Damas, Egypt, Hamath, Kedar, and Samaria. Together they fight Shalmaneser III of Assyria at the Battle of Qarqar which consists of the largest known number of combatants in a single battle to date, and is the first historical mention of the Arabs from the southern deserts.

Map of Canaan and Syria c.850 BC
When the Neo-Assyrian empire threatened the various city states of southern Syria and Canaan around 853 BC, they united to protect their joint territory - successfully it seems, at least for a time (click or tap on map to view full sized)

FeatureDespite claims to the contrary, the Assyrians are defeated (see feature link), since they do not press on to their nearest target, Hamath, and do not resume their attacks on Hamath and Damas for about six years.

c.847 BC

The king (or governor) of Edom, together with Jehoshaphat of Judah and Joram of Samaria, form a coalition which attempts to retake Moab by force but, despite some initial gains, the attempt is unsuccessful.

846/843 BC

Edom rebels against Jehoram of Judah. The rebellion is put down but Edom is never completely subdued, and occasional flare-ups continue to occur. Judah, though, is more concerned with the power of Damas during this period.

In the mid-eighth century BC the Assyrians flex their muscles in Syria and Canaan, fighting to defeat a coalition of regional states. It is the arrival of Tiglath-Pileser III onto the Assyrian throne which swings the balance of power firmly in the latter's favour.

Tiglath-Pileser III of Assyria
Tiglath-Pileser III dominated the Levantine city states during the later years of the eighth century BC, terminating the kingdom of Samaria and, shown here, with his foot on the shoulder of Hanunu of the Philistine city of Gaza, a gesture of dominance in the face of Hanunu's crouched submission

Between 734-733 BC much of the region is conquered by him, although rebellions occur. Five kings of Edom are recorded by the Assyrians. All are known only by the Assyrian translations of their Edomite names.

fl c.745 BC


At the time of Tiglath-Pileser III. 'Malek' means 'ruler'.

fl c.740 BC


At the time of Tiglath-Pileser III.

fl c.735 BC


At the time of Tiglath-Pileser III.

734 - 733 BC

Pekah of Samaria and Rezon II of Damas form an anti-Assyrian coalition. They try to force Ahaz of Judah to join them but are stopped when Tiglath-Pileser III marches an army into the region (partially thanks to payments of silver and gold by Ahaz). Over the next two years he re-conquers all the rebellious states, and takes Damas. Judah becomes an Assyrian vassal, but the king remains on the throne.

724 - 721 BC

Assyria conquers Edom around 724 BC. Two years later (722/721 BC), Moab, Philistia, Judah, and Edom rebel against Sargonid Assyrian overlordship. The rising is apparently put down, but Sennacherib is unable to take Jerusalem itself. With much of the rest of the Israelite lands remaining occupied, the Jewish faith and their god, Yahweh, survive only in this one small pocket which is now little more than a city state.

Relief from Medinet Habu
Shown here is a relief from Medinet Habu which details Philistines with their distinctive feathered headdresses, making them an unusual sight on the battlefield

fl c.700 BC

Malik-rammu / Melek Ram

At the time of Sennacherib. Paid tribute.

fl c.680 BC

Kaus-gabri / Kaus Geber

At the time of Esarhaddon. Paid tribute.

612 BC

The Assyrian empire collapses with the fall of Kalakh and Ninevah to Media and Babylonia, supported by Egypt and groups such as the Scythians, who divide the spoils between them. King Sin-shar-ishkun dies in his burning palace in Babylonia, where Ashurbanipal's great library crashes into the room below, with many of the baked clay tablets surviving to be discovered by later archaeologists. Babylonia soon emerges as the region's new dominant force.

587/586 BC

Following the conquest of Judah by Babylonia, the Edomites are allowed to settle in Hebron, which the later Romans call Idumaea. They migrate from their earlier homeland, possibly alongside the Moabites, although the latter drift out of the historical record at this time.

Idumaea (Edom-in-Hebron) (Canaan)

Ancient Semitic-speaking Canaan was the region of the coastal Near East which stretched from the Sinai near today's border with Egypt, to the border with modern Syria (and partially across it too). The name 'Canaan' itself gradually fell out of use in the first millennium BC, especially once the great empires began to conquer and control the entire Near East, starting with Assyria, but continuing with Babylonia, Persia, and the Greeks. Finally, domination by Rome saw the region transition from ancient period to early medieval period.

Following the Babylonian conquest of the Levant, large numbers of people were shipped off to endure captivity. With good land having been made available the Edomites were able to migrate northwards to settle in the former Jebusite city of Hebron, which the Romans called Idumea (the Moabites may similarly have migrated northwards but they seem to have lost their identity as a result). More specifically, Hebron was part of Upper Idumaea. Theory has it that the Edomites were allowed to undertake this migration to better lands because they may have assisted Babylon in the conquest of Jerusalem.

This movement allowed Arab tribes to venture northwards from their desert territories, with the result that the Kedarites and Nabatu became players in international politics during the seventh and sixth centuries BC. The Edomites remained in Hebron and prospered for more than four centuries, independent from 539 BC to around 275 BC. After that they probably fell under Ptolemaic Egyptian control, followed by Seleucid and Roman rule. By the second century BC they possibly made up the majority population of western Judea.

In 200-195 BC, in order to achieve his part of a treaty with Philip V of Macedonia which was designed to carve up Egypt's colonial possessions, Antiochus III of the Seleucid empire invaded Coele Syria. This triggered the Fifth Syrian War which saw Ptolemaic General Scopas defeated at Panion near the source of the River Jordan in 200 BC. This gained Antiochus control of Judah and Phoenicia (which included the city of Miletus). The campaign ended in a peace deal in 195 BC which secured for Antiochus the permanent possession of southern Syria (which included territory as far south as Idumaea), while Ammon took advantage of the shift in power to declare its own independence.

Phoenicians shifting cedarwood from shore to land

(Information by Peter Kessler, with additional information from Unger's Bible Dictionary, Merrill F Unger (1957), from Easton's Bible Dictionary, Matthew George Easton (1897), from Egypt, Canaan and Israel in Ancient Times, Donald Redford (Princeton University Press, 1992), from Early Israel and the Surrounding Nations, A H Sayce, from Jewish War & Jewish Antiquities, Flavius Josephus, from the Illustrated Dictionary & Concordance of the Bible, Geoffrey Wigoder (Gen Ed, 1986), and from External Links: Encyclopædia Britannica, and Time Maps, and Ancient History Encyclopaedia, and Ancient kingdom of Edom (Sky News), and Appian's History of Rome: The Syrian Wars at Livius.org, and Diodorus of Sicily at the Library of World History (dead link).)

539 - c.275 BC

Having migrated into Judean lands following the Babylonian destruction of that kingdom, the Edomites are able (or allowed) to settle and appear for the most part to retain their independence. This movement allows Arab tribes to venture northwards from their desert territories, with the result that the Kedarites and Nabatu become players in international politics.

Second Temple in Jerusalem
Construction of the Second Temple in Jerusalem was begun on the order of Persian King Cyrus the Great, with the work being under the direct command of his satraps in Judah, Sheshbazzar, and Zorobabel

By the early third century BC that independence ends, seemingly around the time of the First Syrian War being fought between the Seleucid king, Antiochus, and Ptolemy II of Egypt. Little is achieved by that war but a tightening of controls may result.

333 - 332 BC

In 334 BC Alexander of Macedon launches his campaign into the Persian empire by crossing the Dardanelles. Much of Anatolia falls by 333 BC and Alexander proceeds into Syria during 333-332 BC to receive the submission of Ebir-nāri, which also gains him Harran, Judah, and Phoenicia (principally Byblos and Sidon, with Tyre holding out until it can be taken by force).

Athura, Gaza, and Egypt also capitulate (not without a struggle in Gaza's case). With Judah having been captured, the state's 'Great Assembly' and sopherim disappear. The Edomites of Hebron seemingly remain quietly removed from such international events during this period.

Alexander the Great crosses the River Graneikos
Alexander the Great crossed the River Graneikos (or Granicus) in 334 BC to spark a direct face-off with the Persians which had been brewing for generations, and his victory in battle near the river sent shockwaves through the Persian empire

c.165 BC

This new land of the Edomites, known to Rome as Idumaea, gains its freedom from Seleucid rule, probably at the same time as Judea achieves its own independence thanks to the Maccabaean Revolt. This mirrors the rise of the Nabataean kingdom elsewhere in former Edomite territory.

General Gorgias, the Seleucid governor of Idumaea, seems to be second-in-command of the response to Seleucid defeat at the Battle of Beth Heron, under Nicanor, governor of Cyprus but appointed governor of Judea itself although he seemingly does not take up his post due to the war. Both generals are entirely outwitted by the Judeans. Nicanor is beheaded while Gorgias fades out of view following yet another defeat in battle.

160s BC


Governor of Idumaea. Syrian (Seleucid) general.

160 - 109 BC


Several unknown Seleucid governors of Idumaea.

109 BC

The Seleucid civil war continues through 111-109 BC, while Antiochus IX and his ally, Ptolemy IX Soter of Egypt, support the Samarians against John Hyrcanus of Judea, until Rome intervenes on the side of the Judeans and against Antiochus IX and the Samarians (of the former northern Hebrew kingdom of Samaria).

At the same time, Idumaea is drawn into the Hasmonaean kingdom, and governors are subsequently appointed to administer the region. The Idumaean people, the former Edomites, are forcibly (or voluntarily, over time) converted to Judaism.

Jerusalem of the Hasmonaean period was an expanding city with a burgeoning population and a thriving spirit of independence which was supported by the lack of Seleucid coordination and ability to recapture the city

c.100 - 78 BC


Governor of Idumaea. Parentage unknown.

78 - 43 BC

Antipater (I)

Son. Father of Herod 'the Great' of Judea. Governor. Died.

64 - 63 BC

Rome oversees the end of the fading Seleucid kingdom in 64 BC, securing it Syria. In the following year it invades Judea under the leadership of Pompey 'the Great'. The siege of Jerusalem ends Hebrew independence, although Jerusalem retains autonomy. John Hyrcanus II now governs there by Roman decree.

c.43 - 35 BC

Joseph ben Antipater

Son. Governor of Idumaea.

37 BC

Under Roman oversight the Idumaean king of Judea, Herod 'the Great', is granted the authority to appoint the governor of Idumaea. This appointee is usually a relative of his. In the same year Herod begins the renovation of the Temple of Jerusalem, and the expansion of the Temple Mount.

? - 30? BC


Brother-in-law of Herod 'the Great'. Governor of Idumaea.

30? BC

An earthquake hits Judea, seemingly soon after the conflicts of 33-32 BC. Herod offers the Nabataeans a peaceful continuation of his domination of them but they choose to rebel. They invade Judea, but Herod immediately crosses the River Jordan to Philadelphia (modern Amman) and, once he has sighted the Nabataean forces, he attacks their outer flanks while they are holding off from battle.

The city of Petra
Petra was founded in the sixth century BC on the site of an earlier but far more minor settlement, and grew to its full magnificence as the Nabataean capital in the second century BC

28 BC

Costobarus is accused of treason by his wife thanks to three great transgressions against Herod. He is presumably executed by Herod, perhaps in 27-25 BC. Idumaea is drawn directly under Judean control.

4 BC

Herod 'the Great' dies. His kingdom of Judea is divided between his three sons, Philip, Herod Antipas, and Archelaus, although all of them end up ruling overall at some point. The state immediately suffers a messianic revolt due to the incompetence of Archelaus. The revolt is brutally crushed by the legate of Syria, Publius Quinctilius Varus. Jerusalem is occupied by Roman troops and two thousand Jewish rebels are executed.

AD 66 - 73

The First Jewish Uprising against Rome leads to the destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple (AD 70). The Roman general Titus crushes the revolt, and many Judeans are taken as captives to Rome. In AD 68, Josephus begins his History of the Jewish War.

Model of Jerusalem in the first century AD
Hans Kroch build this model of the city of Jerusalem of the first century AD in the 1960s, with only the empty streets giving away the fact that it is not a full-sized city

The Idumaeans immediate benefit from the uprising, having governors of their own appointed from the revolutionary government in Judea around AD 66, but they also suffer when Simon ben Giora attacks and burns villages in Upper Idumaea. Probably for that reason alone the Idumaeans supply twenty thousand men to Rome during the siege of Jerusalem.

c.66 - 68

Niger the Peraean

Born in Peraea, east of the River Jordan. Governor.

66 - 68

Joshua ben Saphas ha-Kohen


66 - 68

Eleazar ben Hananiah

Son of High Priest Hanania. Governor of the Temple.

AD 68 - 135

The uprising is crushed by Rome and the governors removed. The Idumaean people disappear from historical records following the uprisings, although the regional name of Idumaea is still in use for a time. Much of the original Edomite kingdom eventually forms the modern kingdom of Jordan, while Idumaea now forms part of Israel.

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