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Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms

Angles of Central England

 

 

 

MapIclingas

From circa AD 520, and the beginnings of the East Engle domination of the eastern coast of Britain, this band of Angles gradually moved into the East Midlands, alongside other groups who eventually came to be known as the Middil Engle. They had emigrated from Angeln, the homeland of the Anglian peoples, around the start of the sixth century as part of a wholesale movement of peoples that apparently left Angeln deserted.

Documentary evidence for the migration, and the Anglian settlement of central England is minimal, nothing more than elements of an oral tradition that was written down centuries later, but a picture has emerged regarding one particular group of Anglians, the Iclingas, who went further westwards than any of the others and carved out a small kingdom for themselves which soon came to dominate its neighbours to the east. The man who led them here was probably Eomaer, acclaimed by tradition as the last king of Angeln and father of Icel who gave his name to his newly settled people.

Based on the fact, pointed out by Edward Dawson under the East Engle entry, that the Angles, Saxons and Franks all used the 'ch' pronunciation of the letter 'c, he suggests a possible link between Icel and the British tribe of the Iceni. The first Angles to arrive in Britain appear to have settled in the territory of the Iceni (East Anglia). The 'i' at the end of the name is likely to be a Roman addition onto 'Icen', but Icen is already a plural form with the suffix '-en', which leaves the root name of that British tribe as either Ic or Ice. Sticking to the simplest possibility suggests Ic (ich). From that, Edward suggests that the name of the founder of the Iclingas, Icel, is not really the name of a person but is an invented name to explain Icel-ingas after the true origin of the name was forgotten. The letter 'l' could be a diminutive, so if this is the name of a person, it could mean 'Little Ice' (icha). So the Iclingas quite possibly formed in East Anglia but were then pushed westwards for whatever reason, perhaps by the subsequent rulers of the region.

(Additional information by Edward Dawson, from The Oxford History of England: The English Settlements, J N L Meyers, and from The Oxford History of England: Anglo-Saxon England, Sir Frank Stenton.)

c.500

Eomær / Eomaer

Last king of Angeln, who led his people into Britain.

c.510s?

As the former territory of the Iceni is the first arrival point for many Angles arriving in Britain at this time, it seems reasonable to assume that the Iclingas have also followed this route (the Wash being the other main entry point in this region). One theory for why they end up in the East Midlands is that they are forced to migrate by the growing power of the Wuffingas, who subsequently form the East Engle kingdom.

Additionally, in their earliest days in Britain, the Iclingas may have served in some capacity as a foederati force for Caer Went, perhaps also with some intermarriage with the existing population. This would make it easier for native Britons to accept them further west and would also explain the later Mercian tradition for mixing with, and allying themselves to, British elements against common Anglian foes.

c.520

Icel

Son. Founder of the Iclingas in a small Midlands domain.

c.540

Cnebba

c.550

The territory in the East Midlands into which the Iclingas settle is varied, and not entirely attractive. It contains heavy clays around the lower Trent, sandy soil in Sherwood, the wolds of southern Nottinghamshire, and broken country between the Derwent and Erewash. The earliest settlements are in the Trent valley, either close to the river or a little way along its tributaries. The first pagan burials appear in these areas, datable to the middle of the century.

c.560

Cynewald

c.580 - 593

Creoda

Son. Same Creoda as the leader of the Lindisware?

593 - 606

Pybba

Son.

c.600 (or 584)

By this time the various Angle and Saxon peoples which have migrated westwards have formed settlements and perhaps even minor kingdoms of their own around the Midlands, of which the Iclingas are just one. The Iclingas gradually extend the range of their power by slowly amalgamating these peoples. This includes the North Engle in modern Nottinghamshire, the South Engle in modern Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire, and the Pecsætna in The Peak District. It is possible that the latter move into the Peak District as a client unit of the Iclinga kingdom.

Tamworth countryside
The countryside around Tamworth became the earliest base for the Iclingas

The Iclingas eventually become known by the March (border) territory they are conquering, and Mercia evolves into a major Anglo-Saxon kingdom over the course of the next century.

MapMercia (Myrcna)
Incorporating the Pecsaetan & Wreocensaetan

From circa AD 600 the Iclingas began absorbing the Saxon and Anglian kingdoms and tribes of the eastern Midlands into their territory (and probably a good deal of the remaining British population, too), and became known as Mercians, meaning 'Lords of the March'. The word comes from the Old English 'mierce', 'boundary', and meant 'the marches' or 'borderland'. One definite date given for this transformation is 584, which is when the term Mercian was first used, but it probably occurred over the space of a generation or so.

The early Mercians held the main border between the Britons to the west, and the Saxons and Angles in the emerging Engla-land. They were instrumental in pushing back the borders of British kingdoms and territories such as Cynwidion and Pengwern respectively (the latter of which at this time still stretched out to the east of modern Birmingham). Despite this, Pengwern became a strong ally of Mercia in the fight against the Bernicians from 613-656.

Mercia's kings liked to spend Christmas at Tamworth, one of the earliest and best-established parts of their domain where they felt particularly safe. The original Mercian bishopric was established at nearby Lichfield by St Chad in 669, which along with Repton and Tamworth formed the heartland of the early Mercian territory. Around this core there existed satellite peoples in tribal centres, under their own rulers at first, or subjected by Iclinga nobles, and these were absorbed one by one into the Mercian kingdom.

To the north, the Mercians who invaded The Peak called themselves the Pecset (with 'set' evolving into 'settlers'), Pecsaetan or Pecsætna (the latter may be more in favour with modern scholars). To the east were the Middle Angles. To the west were the Wreocensaetan (Wrocenset) around Wroxeter and the Magonset around Kenchester in Herefordshire. All were absorbed in time by Mercia.

(Additional information by Edward Dawson, and from The Oxford History of England: Anglo-Saxon England, Sir Frank Stenton.)

606 - 626

Cearl / Ceorl

Son of Creoda? His widow married Edwin of Deira.

Cearl is not mentioned in the Mercian royal genealogy and his position here in the list, at the beginnings of Mercia, may not be universally accepted. He is not the son of the previous king, Pybba, but a kinsman - the twelfth century Henry of Huntingdon refers to him as such. Instead he has been linked to Pybba's predecessor, Creoda. He is definitely king of the Mercians, however. Bede, a staunch eighth century Northumbrian who bears no love for the Mercians, clearly labels him as such.

Cearl also stands out for his distinctly unusual name. It hints at a profound shift in the rule of the early Mercian kingdom, suggesting an otherwise unproven (or even unsuspected) possible social revolt or cultural revolution in Mercia against proud, dictatorial high-born kings who ignored the wishes of the people. This may have forced the Mercian princes to adopt names in the style of the common freeman or warrior. Cearl himself provides this suggestion with his very name. A ceorl is the lowest rank of free man, a common warrior, just above the slaves and bondsmen in social rank. Why would a king be named after the ceorls?

The theory cannot be proven, of course, and is just one possibility for the king's unusual name. Failing a social revolt, perhaps it came about through a democratic tradition among some of the Angles who came to Britain from the Continent. Or perhaps the king emerged from lowly beginnings as part of a different kind of social revolution. In any case, Mercia shows a glaring difference in the names of its kings from most of the other Anglo-Saxons.

c.610 - 630

The Iclinga Mercians are probably one of the Anglian groups that help to force the collapse of the British kingdom of Cynwidion. The former kingdom is quickly absorbed by Mercia, pushing its border southwards to abut that of the Middel Seaxe.

Chiltern Hills
The Chiltern Hills contain territory that was probably easy to defend for the warriors of the Post-Roman kingdom of Cynwidion, at least initially, until pressure from the north forced its collapse around this time

617

The fall of Elmet to the Bernicians of Edwin suddenly exposes the entire length of the northern border of both Pengwern and Mercia, making them likely next targets in the aggressive policy of Northumbrian expansion.

626 - 654

Penda

Son of Pybba. Ruled until 15 November.

? - 644

Eoba / Eawa

Brother. Death recorded by Annales Cambriae.

628

It seems probable that the Hwicce have been dominated until now by the West Seaxe. Cynegils and Cwichelm his son fight against Penda at Caer Ceri (Cirencester), which is within the territory of the Hwicce settlers. The fight ends with Penda dominant, although the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle fails to give details, and he and Cynegils 'come to an agreement'. There is little doubt that the agreement involves handing over Caer Ceri and the territory along the Severn, and it is probably Penda who forges the disparate groups of the Hwicce into a Mercian sub-kingdom. By this time the Mercians also gain control of most of the former Middil Engle territory centred on Leicestershire, taking much of it from the East Engle.

633

Uniquely, perhaps, Penda allies himself not to other English kingdoms but to the Brito-Welsh of the west Midlands and Wales. In this year, already working in alliance with Cadwallon, king of Gwynedd and High King of the Britons, Penda kills Edwin of Bernicia and Deira. It seems that, up until this great victory, Penda is the junior partner in the alliance. Mercia's position and existence as a kingdom may still be a matter of some doubt, despite recent territorial gains, and fighting against the Northumbrians will always be a status-enhancer, not just in this period alone.

642

Oswald of Bernicia and Deira is killed by Penda on 5 August at the Battle of Maserfelth. The location of Maserfelth is still disputed but opinion favours Oswestry ('Oswald's tree') in Shropshire.

654 - 658

Penda defeats the East Engle at Blytheburgh in 654. In 654 or 655 (the dating can be interpreted both ways), along with Æthelhere of the East Engle, Penda is killed by Oswiu of Northumbria at the Battle of Winwaed. Penda may have inherited a claim on Elmet from his former British ally, Cadwallon, but this defeat marks the final end of any such claim. Northern Mercia is annexed by Northumbria while southern Mercia is given as a sub-kingdom to Peada, the Christian son of Penda.

Two years later, Penda's ally, Pengwern, also falls, and with that the West Midlands apparently suffers a power vacuum for a time, with small groups of Saxons and Angles drifting in to form the Wrocenset and Magonset peoples while occupied Mercia lays claim to portions of the territory. This claim and Mercia's territorial acquisition of former Pengwern continues after Oswiu's control of Mercia ends in 658.

c.655

In 2009 a metal detectorist discovers a deposit of gold ornamentation, primarily on parts of swords. Known as the Staffordshire Hoard, it is located on the heartland of early Mercia, close to the Roman road known as Watling Street, and is found to contain gold to the value of three million pounds sterling (in 2011). Although there is little evidence that can provide an exact date, the animal figures etched into the gold pinpoint the end of the seventh century as the latest point at which the hoard is buried, while this period around 655, when Mercia is on its knees, is the earliest likely date. The earliest pieces in the hoard date from the last decades of the sixth century, and most of the pieces are ornamentation items that have been removed from swords, perhaps which have been captured in battle.

Staffordshire Hoard
The biggest pieces in the Staffordshire Hoard were displayed following conservation and cleaning, and the entire collection was purchased by Birmingham Museum & Art Gallery and the Potteries Museum & Art Gallery

Much of the gold has an origin in India, probably during the Mauryan empire period, from where it would have made its way west via trading links to the Seleucid empire, the Roman empire, and then the Angles. The dating for the earliest pieces to the end of the sixth century raises the possibility that the swords came with the Iclingas when they reached the eastern Midlands from the early East Engle territory, in which case their owners are probably now casualties of the Northumbria occupation of Mercia.

655 - 656

Peada

Son. Vassal of Northumbria. Betrayed by his wife and murdered.

657/658

A group of ealdormen lead a rebellion which re-establishes the kingdom's independence under Peada's brother, Wulfhere. Gaining strength, he quickly regains all the lands south of the Humber which his father had conquered. Mercia also gradually begins to absorbs the eastern half of the former Pengwern territory, while in eastern England it gains dominance over the Lindisware and apparently absorb the Middil Engle fully.

658 - 675

Wulfhere

Brother. Baptised by the Celtic Church, perhaps upon accession.

670

Mercia is by now recognised as the overlord of the Ciltern Saxons and the Suther-ge. Northumbria has been fenced off, the East Engle are impotent, and Wulfhere is preparing for an advance to the Thames, pressing the West Seaxe and threatening to overshadow Kent.

673 - 675

The sudden and unexpected death of Egbert of Kent brings the kingdom to a crisis point. Neither of his sons are of an age to rule, and Wulfhere, hoping for an opportunity to intervene in Kent's affairs, leaps at the chance. Suthrige is detached from Kent and the kingdom itself is seemingly invaded and occupied between 673-674. It takes perhaps eighteen months for the Cantware to rally behind Egbert's only realistic successor.

675

Wulfhere fights the Battle of Bedwyn against Æscwine of the West Seaxe, but he is repelled. In the same year he 'roused all the southern peoples' against Ecgfrith of Northumbria and leads them to defeat. He loses the province of Lindsey and, soon afterwards, his life. However, Mercia's domination of former Pengwern by now is complete.

675 - 685

Berthwald

Brother.

679

FeatureWith Northumbrian dominance now completely thrown off, Mercia regains dominance over Lindsey and retains it until 874. Lindsey is settled as a Mercian province some time afterwards. It must also be in this period in which the Tribal Hidage is compiled.

Tribal Hidage (left) and Grammar of Ælfric (right)
The Tribal Hidage is almost certainly Mercian, although some still argue for a Northumbrian origin, but the British Library version shown here, Harley 3271, is an eleventh century miscellany which includes, amongst others, the Grammar of Ælfric, abbot of Eynsham

674 - 704

Æthelred / Ethelred

Son of Wulfhere. Abdicated to became a monk. Died 716.

686

Mercia loses the Suther-ge to the West Seaxe.

694

Wihtred of Kent comes to terms with Ine over the killing of the royal prince, Mul, in 687. Together, the West Seaxe and Kent hold the line against Mercia in this period, limiting its ability to interfere south of the Thames.

c.700

By this time, Mercia has made clients of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of the Wrocenset and Magonset (occupying portions of the territory of former British Pengwern) to the west, and are dominant over the Middle Angles to the east. It has probably also secured control over the region around Chester, which may have been lost to the Britons of Powys and Pengwern after their defeat at the Battle of Caer Legion (613?).

704 - 709

Coenred / Cenred

Son of Wulfhere. Abdicated. Died on pilgrimage to Rome.

709 - 716

Ceolred

Son of Ethelred.

716 - 757

Æthelbald / Aethelbald

Son of Alweo, descendant of Eoba. Bretwalda (c.735-757).

c.730

Under Æthelbald the process of Mercian consolidation truly begins. By this point the kingdom gains control of the Middle Saxons from the East Saxons, and has fully absorbed the Magonset, although their territory remains a highly disputed borderland area between Mercia and Powys until the period of Norman power in England.

733

Æthelbald captures the royal West Saxon vill of Somerton (capital of the Somersaete). In fact, the Mercian king spends much of his time harrying the West Saxons, turning the kingdom into 'little more than a large outlying province of Mercia', (Stenton). Kent is left alone under the protection of the church at Canterbury.

740 - 752

The West Saxon king, Cuthred, and Æthelbald enjoy mixed relations. As soon as he gains the throne, Cuthred attacks Mercia in return for the events of 733. Three years later, in 743, the two kings are allies in fighting against the Welsh. In 752, the two are again at each other's throats, with Cuthred putting Æthelbald to flight.

757

Æthelbald, after a reign of almost forty years in which he has kept the peace as 'rex Sutanglorum', 'king of the southern English', but has angered St Boniface with his violations not only of other mens' wives but also of 'the brides of Christ', is murdered. The deed is done by a bodyguard at Seckington, near the royal palace of Tamworth - probably under instruction from one or other party of the royal kin.

757

Beornraed

Cousin, from the line of Cenwalh.

757 - 796

Offa

Son of Thingfrith, son of Eanulf. Bretwalda (757-July 796).

764

Already manoeuvring his own candidates for the Kentish throne in order to keep out the West Saxons, Offa makes a sudden visit to Canterbury. Sigered is deposed, as is Ealhmund. New rulers replace them in the form of Heaberht and Egbert, both Mercian dependants (although the latter is certainly not a pawn). In 765, Offa is unable to prevent the election of a staunch supporter of Kentish independence to the office of archbishop of Canterbury. Jænberht, former abbot of St Augustine's, is one of the key players in the subsequent revolt against Mercia and remains an implacable opponent of Offa.

772 -774

Offa is able to complete the process of Mercian consolidation, ruling a large and extremely powerful kingdom that is addressed on an equal footing with Charlemagne's Frankish empire. During this period, Offa seems determined to end the regional autonomy that Æthelbald had allowed. The South Saxons are brought under Mercian control, with sub-kings being appointed. Kent is effectively annexed, with Offa signing himself as 'king of all the English' on two charters of 774. The Hwicce territory is absorbed directly into Mercia, with its kings being replaced with ealdormen.

Offa silver penny
A silver penny issued during Offa's reign, and minted in London by Eadhun 

776

The clash between Kent and Mercia occurs a year or so after the flag of rebellion is raised, the respite probably due to Offa's entanglement with Cynewulf of the West Saxons. Kent wins the battle, and the Kentish king reigns in complete independence for about nine years, probably in alliance with Cynewulf.

779 - 785

Offa defeats Cynewulf of the West Saxons at Bensington. It takes five more years for him to turn his attentions to Kent, but everyone in Kent knows what lies in store for them.

786 - 796

Offa rules Kent directly, although from precisely when is hard to ascertain, but it is seized by a native ruler as soon as the great king dies.

787 - 796

Ecgfrið / Ecgfrith / Ecgferth / Ecgfrid

Son. 'Consecrated' as successor in 787 & theoretical joint ruler.

787 - 799

Britain briefly pays host to a third archdiocese when Offa raises the bishopric of Lichfield (confirmed at the Council of Chelsea). Following the reassertion of his control over Kent in 785 a dispute arises between Offa and Archbishop Jaenbert. Offa creates a new archbishopric under Hygeberht, bishop of Lichfield within Mercia, which answers to him but which also receives the blessing of the Pope. It lasts until 799 and is officially terminated in 803, with full authority being returned to Canterbury.

793

Following a short-lived revolt, Offa re-conquers East Anglia, ordering its king to be beheaded. Mercia rules the kingdom directly, retaining control even after Offa's death except for one brief spell. The rule of his son and successor is very brief, lasting just a few months.

796

Rebellion removes Kent from Offa's control just before his death. The kingdom is free for two years, as Mercia deals with its own internal politics.

796

Ecgfrið / Ecgfrith / Ecgferth

Former joint ruler. Ruled July-December. Possibly murdered.

796 - 821

Coenwulf / Canulph

Line of Cenwalh. Ruled from December 796.

798

Coenwulf invades Kent with a massive army and captures Eadbert II, blinding and imprisoning him. Mercia again rules Kent directly through one of its own men, Cuthred. It is likely that Cuthred's successor is also Coenwulf's vassal.

821

Coenwulf dies in Basingwerk, while preparing for another assault on Powys, and is buried in Winchcombe Abbey. His son, Cenelm, is chosen to succeed him, but he is killed, probably fighting the Welsh (although his death is also attributed to the treachery of his jealous sister, Cwenthryth (Cwoenthryth), abbess of Minster in Kent). He is also buried at Winchcombe Abbey and later revered as a saint. With the Mercian royal house gradually collapsing under the weight of its own internal rottenness, the throne passes to Coenwulf's brother, Ceolwulf.

821

Cenelm / Kenelm

Son. Killed before he could assume power.

821 - 823

Ceolwulf I

Brother of Coenwulf. Last of the Iclingas.

821

Athelstan of East Anglia makes his first attempt to regain Anglian independence upon the death of Coenwulf. Very soon afterwards, Ceolwulf, ousts him and restores Mercian control. However, Ceolwulf's rule is short-lived. He is deposed and replaced by Beornwulf, apparently one of the less distinguished Mercian ealdormen, so ending the line of Iclingas that has ruled since the days of Angeln.

823 - 825

Beornwulf / Beornulf

Descendent of Beornraed.

825

The Mercian decline gives Ecgberht of Wessex an opportunity not to be missed. He defeats the mighty Mercians at the Battle of Ellandon (Wroughton, near Swindon). The Mercians lose the sub-kingdoms of Essex, Kent, Sussex and Suthrige, but are allowed to retain Berkshire, with its boundaries being formally set. Athelstan of East Anglia begins to re-assert the independence of his people and although Beornwulf invades, he is killed in battle. He is succeeded by Ludecan.

825 - 827

Ludecan / Ludeca

827

Athelstan of East Anglia establishes himself as king there after killing Ludecan.

827 - 829

Wiglaf

Father-in-law of Ceolwulf's daughter.

829 - 830

Wessex overcomes the kingdom and rules it directly. Wiglaf is ousted. He manages to return in 830, re-establishing his rule within the kingdom's boundaries and essentially saving it from eclipse as an independent entity.

830 - 840

Wiglaf

Restored.

840 - 852

Beorhtwulf / Brihtwulf

Descendent of Beornwulf. Defeated by Danes.

844

During the reign of Merfyn Vrych of Gwynedd those Britons residing in England (probably in western Mercia) are obliged to renounce their British ancestry or leave the country and their homes within three months. Perhaps it is this insult that prompts the king to engage in battle against Beorhtwulf. The battle at Cyveiliawc (otherwise called Ketill or Cetyll), is apparently very severe and the king is killed. In the same year another battle is fought at Fferyllwg, 'between the Wye and the Severn', and this time it is the Welsh who carry the day.

849

A charter referring to the district to the south-west of Birmingham mentions the boundary of a folk called the Tomsaetan, the dwellers by the Tame, or Tame settlers. Another document shows them to be ruled by their own ealdorman (effectively a sub-king in former days), while the country contains the monastery of Breedon on the Hill, in northern Leicestershire. This is more than forty-eight kilometres (thirty miles) in a straight line from Birmingham, so the Tomsaetan territory is clearly large.

851/852

A force of 350 Danish ships sails into the Thames estuary, sacks London and puts to flight a Mercian army under Beorhtwulf. The king is thought to be killed during the battle, or perhaps afterwards, although this is not recorded by the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. In the same year, Wessex wins a famous victory over Danes (quite possibly the same force) at Aclea (perhaps in Surrey), and then a great sea victory off Sandwich.

852 - 874

Burgreda / Burhed

Expelled by Danes and died on pilgrimage to Rome in 874/875.

870 - 871

Fresh from destroying the East Anglian kingdom the year before, the 'Great Host' of Danes destroys the great abbey of Medeshamsteade (Peterborough) and lays waste to the surrounding countryside to an extent that it remains a wilderness a century later. Then, in 871, Halfdan, brother of Ivarr the Boneless of the Viking kingdom of Dublin, leads the army into Wessex.

Vikings

874

Burgreda has attempted to maintain the kingdom in the face of Danish attacks, but much of Mercia is overcome by Halfdan, and the remainder submits to the overlordship of Wessex. Large swathes of eastern Mercia are lost to what, in 878, becomes the Danish kingdom of East Anglia.

874 - 879

Ceolwulf II

FeaturePossible descendant of Ceolwulf I. Last king of Mercia.

878

Following the defeat of Guthrum's Vikings at the hands of Alfred of Wessex, the Peace of Wedmore allows a Christian Guthrum to return to East Anglia, where he rules what had been East Anglia, Essex and eastern Mercia.

Viking helmet

879

Following the death of Ceolwulf II, Alfred the Great, king of the West Saxons, shows just how much greater his influence over the Mercians now is when he places his son-in-law on what remains of the throne of Mercia. Although Æthelred holds a king's sway he is known as the 'Lord of Mercia'.

MapLords of Mercia
AD 879 - 924

Mercia was effectively downgraded once it had to look to the West Saxons for protection and, despite the hopes of its people, it never regained independence, although it did retain an independent identity until at least 1066. Æthelred held the titles of 'Lord of Mercia' and 'Eorlderman of the Hwicce'.

879 - 911

Æthelred / Ethelred II

Son-in-law of Alfred the Great of the West Saxons.

883

Alfred of the West Saxons takes London from the Danes and entrusts its safety to Æthelred.

886

By this time Alfred the Great is apparently acknowledged king of all English not under Danish rule (the latter being exercised from the Danish kingdom of East Anglia). Æthelred governs the remnants of Mercia in Alfred's name as an earldorman.

c.900

The shiring of Mercia begins about this date, which results in the county boundaries which exist until 1974. Some of the old tribal or kingdom names survive long after this period, including the Peak District, and 'Magonsaetan' which is named in the twelfth century Chronicon of John of Worcester.

911 - 918

Æthelflaed / Aethelflaed

Wife. Daughter of Alfred. Lady of the Mercians. Died 12 June.

917 - 918

Æthelflaed captures the borough of Derby from the Scandinavian rulers of York. The following year the people of Leicester submit without battle, and York promises to accept Æthelflaed as its overlord, 'Lady of the People of York'. Although she dies before this can be effected, her brother, Edward, king of Wessex, succeeds her and probably attempts to enforce the promise.

St Oswald's Priory, Gloucester
The Priory of St Oswald was dedicated in 890 by Æthelflaed as a house of secular canons. It was built, probably with stones taken from a nearby Roman temple, in the days when Gloucester was a royal town

918 - 919

Ælfwynn / Elfwynna

Daughter. Lady of the Mercians. Ruled only temporarily.

919 - 924

On the death of Æthelflaed, control of Mercia passes to her brother, Edward, king of Wessex. Ælfwynn is removed and sent back to Wessex, to a convent, and the governorship of Mercia is taken directly by the kings of Wessex.

924

Æthelstan / Athelstan

Son of Edward of Wessex. Became king there in 924.

924

Æthelstan rules Mercia for sixteen days at which point his half-brother, Ælfweard, king of Wessex, dies. Æthelstan assumes the Wessex crown in addition to his Mercian title. With the submission of Viking York, Scotland, Strathclyde, English Northumbria (Bamburgh), Dumnonia and the Welsh kingdoms, Æthelstan becomes the first king of England.

924 - 955

Mercia is ruled directly by the kings of Wessex, during which time Æthelstan's united kingdom of all the English is reformed following a minor resurgence by York. The accession of Edgar in 959 fully and finally confirms the union of all England.

Earls of Mercia
c.AD 950 - 1071

Following the union of all the Anglo-Saxon and Danish peoples of England under one king, Mercia remained a powerful domain with a very important heritage. The earldom covered much the same territory as the former kingdom and the earl was a key player in English politics. Governed initially by ealdormen during the period of Wessex domination, the Old English title became that of earl under the Danish kings. During the reign of Edward the Confessor, Leofric of Mercia was the main rival of Earl Godwine, the power behind the throne, and was guaranteed eternal fame by the act of his wife, Lady Godiva, riding naked through the streets of Coventry.

c.950 - 983

Ælfhere

Of Wessex origin, perhaps with royal blood.

955 - 959

There is a successional rift between King Edred's two sons, Edwy and Edgar. The latter takes control of Mercia and Northumbria, while Edwy rules in the south until his death in 959. Edgar then seizes complete control and becomes the second king of England.

978/9

Retainers of Queen Ælfthryth murder Edward (although this is never conclusively proven, and no one is ever brought to justice). Ælfthryth secures the English throne for her ten year-old son, Æthelred. Ælfhere is a key supporter of the new king.

983 - 985

Ælfric Cild

Brother-in-law.

983 - 985

Upon the death of Ælfhere, his sister's husband, Ælfric, succeeds to the position, but he is exiled in 985 on a charge of treason which is related to possibly underhand property dealings. The position of earl appears to remain vacant for a period, although Leofwine appears to fulfil at least some of the duties of office from 994. Before him, a certain Æthelsige may hold a position of some authority in Mercia, but the level of his authority is unknown.

985? - 994?

Æthelsige

King's thegn. Earl, or simply fulfilling some duties?

994 - 1007?

Leofwine

Earldorman of the Hwicce (fl 997-c.1023/1028).

1007 - 1017

Eadric Streona

Not a noble but rose thanks to the favour of Æthelred II.

1016 - 1017

With the help of Uchtred, high reeve of Bamburh, Edmund Ironsides fights strongly to prevent the Danish control of England. After a series of successes, one disastrous defeat achieved through the treachery of his Mercian ally, Eadric, is enough to end his resistance. Canute becomes king in 1016 and, following the very necessary disposal of Eadric Streona (who is dispatched by Eric of Hlathir, earl of York), Mercia is perhaps given to a Danish noble whose name is unknown, although it is also possible that it is given to Leofric. The latter is certainly earl in the 1030s.

c.1030 - 1057

Leofric

Son of Leofwine. Earl in 1017?

According to popular legend, Leofric's wife, Godiva (the Latinised form of the Old English Godgifu or Godgyfu), rides naked through the streets of Coventry (which at this time is little more than a small town) in order to persuade her husband to relive the town of oppressive tax levels. She does so under escort by two knights and with all the townspeople behind bolted doors and shuttered windows. The truth of the legend has long been questioned, with a suggestion that the story may be a post-Conquest invention bemoaning the loss of English freedoms at Norman hands, perhaps invented while Godiva is still alive (she dies in 1067).

Lady Godiva
A popular romantic portrayal of Lady Godiva's ride through the streets of Coventry

1051 - 1052

In an attempt to reign in the Viking powerbase in England, Edward the Confessor has Earl Godwine removed from office. However, Edward's apparent favouritism of his Norman allies alienates many Anglo-Saxon nobles, most notably the powerful earls of Northumbria and Mercia. Invited to return, Earl Godwine sails into London and is not opposed by the royal fleet.

c.1054

Leofric and Godgifu refound the church of St Mary at Stow by Lincoln in the region of Lindsey, which had probably been founded around 975. The church is again refounded in 1091 by Bishop Remigius, this time as an abbey. However, the nave of the tenth century church cuts through seventeen burials from an earlier church, and the portacus cuts through a path that covers even earlier graves, showing a continuation of use going back several centuries.

1057 - 1062

Ælfgar

Son. Also earl of East Anglia (1053-1057).

1062 - 1070

Edwin

Son. His brother was Morcar of Northumbria. Last earl.

1066

A year after Harold's rebellious younger brother, Earl Tostig of Northumbria, flees the country, Harold's army defeats an attempted invasion of England by the Norwegian king, Harald Hadrada, who has sided with Tostig. Almost immediately afterwards, Harold has to march his tired army south to face a second invasion by William, duke of Normandy. Harold is narrowly defeated at Hastings on 14 October, and the Anglo-Saxon line of kings comes to an end. Edwin of Mercia is confirmed in his position by William, while many other English nobles are being dispossessed of their estates and titles.

1071

Edwin is implicated in the revolt of this year and is dispossessed of his title and lands by King William of England. Mercia is broken up, the new earldoms of Chester and Shrewsbury dividing regional control between them. This act very much marks the end of Old English Mercia.