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Post-Roman Britain

The Annales Cambriae

(The Annals of Wales) Compiled 1 April 1999

 

 

The main body of this version, the James Ingram translation (London: Everyman Press, 1912), is taken from the Harleian manuscript.

This is the earliest copy of the Annales Cambriae to have survived, although there are later copies of other lost versions. Text in maroon is from entries which are not found in the Harleian MS, but which appear in some of those later versions. Notes have been added by this compiler.

 

447

Days as dark as night [referring to an eclipse, or the Adventus Saxonum?] [1].
 

[1] Post-Roman Britain, 38 years after the end of Roman administration of the island.

453

Easter altered on the Lord's Day by Pope Leo, Bishop of Rome.
 

454

St. Brigid is born.
 

457

St. Patrick goes to the Lord.
 

458

St. David is born in the thirtieth year after Patrick left Menevia [427, presumably when he first visited Ireland].
 

468

The death of Bishop Benignus.
 

501

Bishop Ebur rests in Christ, he was 350 years old.
 

516

The Battle of Badon, in which Arthur carried the Cross of our Lord Jesus Christ for three days and three nights on his shoulders and the Britons were the victors. [Dated to c.496 by many scholars]
 

521

St. Columba is born. The death of St. Brigid.
 

537

The battle of Camlann, in which Arthur and Medraut fell [usually dated to 511]: and there was plague in Britain and Ireland.
 

544

The sleep [death] of Ciaran.
 

547

The great death [plague] in which Maelgwn, king of Gwynedd died. Thus they say 'The long sleep of Maelgwn in the court of Rhos'. Then was the yellow plague.
 

558

The death of Gabrán, son of Dungart. [of Dal Riada]
 

562

Columba went to Britain.
 

565

The voyage of Gildas to Ireland.
 

569

The 'Synod of Victory' was held between the Britons.
 

570

Gildas wisest of Britons died.
 

573

The battle of Arfderydd between the sons of Eliffer [of Ebrauc] and Gwenddolau son of Ceidio [of Caer-Guendolau]; in which battle Gwenddolau fell; Merlin went mad [2].
 

[2] The effective end of Post-Roman Britain, which now contracts into Wales, the South West & the North.

574

The sleep [death] of Brendan of Birr.
 

580

Gwrgi and Peredur sons of Elifert [of Ebrauc] died.
 

584

Battle against the Isle of Man and the burial of Daniel of the Bangors.
 

589

The conversion of Constantine [High King of Britain] to the Lord.
 

594

Aethelbert reigned in England [Kent, from 560].
 

595

The death of Columba.

The death of King Dunod son of Pabo [of The Peak].
Augustine and Mellitus converted the English to Christ.
 

601

The synod of Urbs Legionis [Caer Legion to the Britons, Chester in English].

Gregory died in Christ and also bishop David of Moni Iudeorum.
 

606

The burial of bishop Cynog.
 

607

The death of Aidan son of Gabrán [of Dal Riada]
 

612

The death of Kentigern and bishop Dyfrig.
 

613

The battle of Caer Legion [Chester]. And there died Selyf son of Cynan [of Powys]. And Iago [of Gwynedd] son of Beli slept [died].
 

616

Ceredig died.
 

617

Edwin [of the Northumbrians] begins his reign.
 

624

The sun is covered [eclipsed].
 

626

Edwin is baptised, and Rhun [second] son of Urien [Rheged] baptised him.
 

627

Belin dies.
 

629

The besieging of king Cadwallon [of Gwynedd] in the island of Glannauc.
 

630

Gwyddgar comes and does not return. On the Kalends of January the battle of Meigen; and there Edwin was killed with his two sons [633 Anglo Saxon Chronicle]; but Cadwallon was the victor.
 

631

The battle of Cantscaul in which Cadwallon fell.
 

632

The slaughter of the [River] Severn and the death of Idris.
 

644

The battle of Cogfry in which Oswald king of the Northmen [the Northumbrians] and Eawa [Eoba] king of the Mercians fell.
 

645

The hammering of the region of Dyfed, when the monastery of David was burnt.
 

649

Slaughter in Gwent.

650

The rising of a star.
 

656

The slaughter of Campus Gaius.
 

657

Penda [of Mercia] killed.
 

658

Oswy [Oswiu of Bernicia] came and took plunder [from Mercia].
 

661

Cummine the tall died.
 

662

Brocmail the tusked dies.
 

665

The first celebration of Easter among the Saxons. The second battle of Badon [the first being the Mons Badonicus of c.496]. Morgan dies.
 

669

Oswy, king of the Saxons [Bernician Northumbrian Bretwalda], dies.
 

676

A star of marvellous brightness was seen shining throughout the whole world.
 

682

A great plague in Britain, in which Cadwaladr son of Cadwallon [of Gwynedd] dies.
 

683

A plague was in Ireland.
 

684

A great earthquake in the Isle of Man.
 

689

The rain turned to blood in Britain, and in Ireland milk and butter turned to blood.
 

704

Aldfrith king of the Saxons [Northumbrians] died. The sleep of Adomnán.
 

714

Night was as bright as day. Pepin the elder [actually Pepin II, of Heristal], king of the Franks, died in Christ.
 

717

Osred king of the Saxons [Northumbrians] dies.
 

718

The consecration of the church of the archangel Michael on mount Gargano.
 

721

A hot summer.
 

722

Beli son of Elffin dies. And the battle of Hehil among the Cornish, the battle of Garth Maelog, the battle of Pencon among the south Britons, and the Britons were the victors in those three battles.
 

728

The battle of mount Carno.
 

735

Bede the priest sleeps.
 

736

Oengus king of the Picts died.
 

750

Battle between the Picts and the Briton, that is the battle of Mocetauc. And their king Talorgan is killed by the Britons.
 

754

Rhodri king of the Britons [Gwynedd] dies.
 

757

Ethelbald [?of Mercia] king of the Saxons dies.
 

760

A battle between the Britons and the Saxons, that is the battle of Hereford and Dyfnwal son of Tewdwr dies.
 

768

Easter is changed among the Britons on the Lord's day, Elfoddw, servant of God, emending it.
 

775

Ffernfael son of Ithael [of Gwent] dies.
 

776

Cinaed king of the Picts dies.
 

777

Abbot Cuthbert dies.
 

778

The devastation of the South Britons by Offa [of Mercia].
 

784

The devastation of Britain by Offa in the summer.
 

796

Devastation by Rheinwg [of Dyfed] son of Offa. The first coming of the gentiles [Norsemen] among the southern Irish.
 

797

Offa king of the Mercians and Maredudd king of the Demetians die, at the battle of Rhuddlan.
 

798

Caradog king of Gwynedd is killed by the Saxons.
 

807

Arthen king of Ceredigion dies. Solar eclipse.
 

808

Rhain king of the Demetians and Cadell king of Powys die.
 

809

Elfoddw archbishop in the Gwynedd region went to the Lord.
 

810

The moon covered. Mynyw burnt. Death of cattle in Britain [bovine plague?].
 

811

Owain son of Maredudd dies.
 

812

The fortress of Degannwy is struck by lightning and burnt.
 

813

Battle between Hywel and Cynan [of Gwynedd]. Hywel was the victor.
 

814

There was great thunder and it caused many fires. Tryffin son of Rhain [of Dyfed] died. And Gruffydd son of Cyngen [of Powys] is killed by treachery by his brother Elisedd after an interval of two months [while Cyngen rules the kingdom]. Hywel triumphed over the island of Mona and he drove Cynan from there with a great loss of his own army.
 

816

Hywel was again expelled from Mona. Cynan the king dies. Saxons invaded the mountains of Eryri and the kingdom of Rhufoniog.
 

817

The battle of Llan-faes.
 

818

Cenwulf [of Mercia] devastated the Dyfed region.
 

822

The fortress of Degannwy is destroyed by the Saxons and they took the kingdom of Powys into their own control.
 

825

Hywel dies.
 

831

Lunar eclipse. Laudent died and Sadyrnfyw Hael of Mynyw died.
 

840

Nobis the bishop ruled Mynyw.
 

842

Idwallon dies.
 

844

Merfyn dies. The battle of Cetill.
 

848

The battle of Ffinnant. Ithael king of Gwent was killed by the men of Brycheiniog.
 

849

Meurig was killed by Saxons.
 

850

Cynin [of Powys] is killed by the gentiles [or 852]. ["Black gentiles" would seem to be the Danes]
 

853

Mona laid waste by black gentiles.
 

856

Kenneth king of the Picts died [or 860]. And Jonathan prince of Abergele dies.
 

860

Catgueithen was expelled.
 

864

Duda laid Glywysing waste.
 

865

Cian of Nanhyfer died.
 

866

The city of York was laid waste, that is the battle with the black gentiles.
 

869

The battle of Bryn Onnen.
 

870

The fortress of Alt Clud [Dumbarton, Strathclyde] was broken by the gentiles.
 

871

Gwgon king of Ceredigion was drowned.
 

873

Nobis the bishop and Meurig die. The battle of Bannguolou.
 

874

Llunferth the bishop consecrated.
 

875

Dungarth king of Cernyw that is of the Cornish [of Dumnonia] was drowned.
 

876

The battle of Sunday in Mona.
 

877

Rhodri [of Gwynedd] and his son Gwriad is killed by the Saxons.
 

878

Aed son of Neill [or mac Kenneth - of Scotland] dies.
 

880

The battle of Conwy. Vengeance for Rhodri at God's hand. The battle of Cynan.
 

882

Catgueithen died.
 

885

Hywel died in Rome.
 

887

Cerball died.
 

889

Suibne the wisest of the Irish died.
 

892

Hyfaidd dies.
 

894

Anarawd [of Gwynedd & Deheubarth] came with the Angles and laid waste Ceredigion and Ystrad Tywi.
 

895

The Northmen came and laid waste Lloegr [the ancient British name for what became England] and Brycheiniog and Gwent and Gwynllywiog.
 

896

Bread failed in Ireland. Vermin like moles with two teeth fell from the air and ate everything up; they were driven out by fasting and prayer.
 

898

Athelstan [Guthrum, Danish] king of the Saxons [East Anglia] died.
 

900

Alfred king of the Gewissi [West Saxons] dies.
 

902

Igmund came to Mona and took Maes Osfeilion.
 

903

Merfyn [of Powys] son of Rhodri [of Gwynedd] died and Llywarch son of Hyfaidd [of Dyfed] dies.
 

904

Rhodri son of Hyfaidd [of Dyfed] was beheaded in Arwystli.
 

906

The battle of Dinmeir and Mynyw was broken.
 

907

Bishop Gorchywyl dies and king Cormac.
 

908

Bishop Asser died.
 

909

King Cadell [of Seisyllwg] son of Rhodri [of Gwynedd] dies.
 

913

Ohter comes to Britain.
 

915

Anarawd king of the Britons [Deheubarth] dies.
 

917

Queen Aethelflaed died.
 

919

King Clydog [presumably the king of Seisyllwg] was killed.
 

921

The battle of Dinas Newydd.
 

928

Hywel journeyed to Rome. Helen died.
 

935

Gruffydd son of Owain died.
 

938

The battle of Brune.
 

939

Hyfaidd son of Clydog, and Meurig, died.
 

941

Aethelstan king of the Saxons [of Wessex] died.
 

942

King Afloeg dies.
 

943

Cadell son of Arthfael was poisoned. And Idwal son of Rhodri and his son Elisedd are killed by the Saxons.
 

944

Llunferth bishop in Mynyw died.
 

945

Bishop Morlais died.
 

946

Cyngen son of Elisedd was poisoned. And Eneuris bishop in Mynyw died. And Strathclyde was laid waste by the Saxons [3].
 

[3] The Angles and Saxons are now united under one king.

947

Edmund king of the Saxons [England] was killed.
 

950

Hywel king of the Britons [Deheubarth] called the Good died.
 

951

And Cadwgan son of Owain is killed by the Saxons. And the battle of Carno between the sons of Hywel and the sons of Idwal.
 

952

Iago and Idwal the sons of Idwal laid Dyfed waste.
 

954

Rhodri son of Hywel [of Deheubarth] dies.

 

 

     
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