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Galicia

Modern Galicia is a divided region, split between south-eastern Poland and western Ukraine into the provinces of Westgalizien and Ostgalizien respectively, with the Pripet Marshes immediately to the east (now in Belarus). At the start of the Roman period the region was home to Celtic and Germanic tribes, along with Finno-Ugric elements. When the Celtic tribes in the region came under increasing pressure from Germanic tribes, many fractured, with many people finding refuge in south-eastern Poland. The Boii, Helveconae, and Osi certainly seem to have been part of this refugee collective, while other tribes, such as the Harii, Helisii, Manimi, and Naharvali seem to have migrated out of the area as part of the Lugii confederation.

The Great Migration period saw a large number of diverse peoples pass through, including Alans, Gepids, Goths, Huns, Rugii, and Scirii, followed by Avars, Croats, Serbs, Bulgars, Hungarians, and finally by other groups of Slavs who settled between the fifth and seventh centuries. From at least the sixth century, Galicia was part of Polish tribal territories.

FeatureThe name 'Galicia' (with the 'c' of this and the 't' in the very similar Galatia being interchangeable), is a form of the most ancient name of the Celts as we understand it today. This was reported variously as beginning with a 'g' or 'k' sound, followed by an 'a' or 'e', followed always by an 'l', and followed by either a vowel or not, and finally by a 'd' or 't'. So Kelt, Caled (as in the Caledonians of Pictland), Galatia (in Anatolia), or in this case, Galicia, all mean the same thing, 'Celt'.

(Additional information by Edward Dawson.)

c.501

Galicia is drawn into the Polish tribal territories. It is possible that the various Celtic elements, especially refugees from the Boii tribe, remain when the Slavs take over as a new military elite. The same situation almost certainly occurs a little to the west, in Bohemia. This would certainly explain its name, which means 'Celt' in what is probably the name's original form. Other Celtic elements could be a strong presence of Venedi settlers.

Vistula
For a seagoing people like the Venedi, it would have been a fairly simple process to sail along the southern waters of the Baltic and enter a wide river mouth such as the Vistula - settlement quickly followed, spreading south along the river's east bank between the fifth or fourth centuries BC and the first and second AD

c.970 - 981

As Galicia-Volynia, the region is united by the Piasts into their Polish duchy and kingdom. In 982, reference is made to Vnnd.r as a Christian 'nation' of Rum that is located between the lands of the 'Madjgharî' and the MIRV (M.rdât). The Pechenegs lie to the east (around the north-west corner of the Black Sea coast), while above them and leading north-eastwards are the Kievan Rus and the Bulgars of the Volga respectively. The references are Arabic, hence their obliqueness when written in English.

The Madjgharî are the Magyars, a people who contribute to the populating of Hungary. Rum is Rome, although the people are not specifically being labelled as Romans - they are simply more civilised than their neighbours in terms of being settled farmers with an element of presumed sophistication. The MIRV are Moravians, living to the north, but seemingly not yet having fully migrated far enough to settle next to the more westerly Bohemians (Moravia being the modern eastern half of the Czech republic).

As for the Vnnd.r and N.nd.r, this is a more complicated question. They have been linked with the Bulgars, and could be the 'Venender', 'Vhndur', and 'Onogur' that appear in other texts. A tentative link with the Venedi can also be made for them. Their location between the Moravians and Magyars places them in modern northern Romania and western Ukraine, probably close to the thirteenth century city of Lviv in Galicia. This perhaps also ties them in with the headwaters of the ancient River Hypanis (the modern Southern Bug or Buh in Ukraine) and the northern bank of the Tyras (the modern Dniester), both rivers seemingly being close to the Venedi at the southerly extension of their migration down the Vistula.

981 - 1018

Galicia is mentioned by Nestor, who describes the passage of Volodymyr the Great of Kiev as he enters into Poland and claims this region for his own.

River Dniester at Halych
The Dniester in Galicia was where the city of Halych was founded (now in Ukraine), gaining its name from the region as a whole and therefore preserving the memory and probable integration of Celtic people into the later Slavic population

1018 - 1031

Poland regains Galicia.

1031

Kiev regains Galicia when Poland is partitioned three ways. Local rulers appear in Galicia, or at least are recorded for the first time.

? - 1084

Volodar Rostislavich of Tmutarakan

1084 - 1188

Overlordship of Galicia falls to Vratislav II of Bohemia, possibly not for the first time, and local rulers are (also possibly) appointed by Vratislav.

1084 - ?

Vasilko Romanovich

Iurii Vasilkovich

? - 1141

Igor-Ivan Rostislavich

Halychyna (Galicia) / Halych-Volynia (Galicia-Volhynia)
AD 1142 - 1349

The collapse of the Keivan Rus created a host of minor principalities across the territories formerly controlled by Kiev, and Halych proved to be one of the most important of these, along with Novgorod and Vladimir-Suzdal. In 1142, Volodymyrko Volodarovych (1104-1152), a descendant of Vladimir I the Wise of Kiev, united the principalities of Przemysl, Terebovlya, and Zvenyhorod into a single state called Halychyna (Galicia) which included a sizeable part of western Ukraine in its territory. He transferred the capital from Zvenyhorod to Halych, where he and his first Rurikid dynasty expanded the settlement.

Some sources claim a date of 1189 for the formation of the principality, but this may just be when it was first officially recognised by other powers. The name 'Galicia' is mirrored in the name of the city which formed its capital, Halych (Ukrainian), or Galych (Russian), next to the modern city of the same name on the Dniester in Ukraine. However, 'Galicia' itself was a much older name, one which referred to Celts who had long ago settled the region (see Galatia for an explanation).

(Additional information by Michael Hickson.)

1142 - 1152

Volodymyrko Volodarovych

Son of Volodar Rostislavich.

1145

Ivan 'Berladnik'

Prince of Zvenyhorod. Poisoned in 1161.

1153 - 1187

Yaroslav I Osmomysl

Son.

1157

The cathedral of the Dormition is probably built in this year.

1187 - 1188

Oleg ('Nastasyich')

Illegitimate son by second wife. Poisoned.

1187 - 1188

Roman Mstislavich the Great

Rival for the throne.

1189 - 1210

A year after Hungarian rule is apparently established, the principality of Galicia is formed (or recognised), although no longer under Hungarian control. It is more likely that it is re-formed under Vladimir II after the succession problems of 1187-1190. The name Vladimir consists of two parts, 'vlad' and 'mir'. While 'mir' can mean 'world' or 'peace', 'vlad' is more interesting. It is probably a Slav corruption of 'galat', a version of 'celt' which was preserved in Galicia.

1190 - 1199

Vladimir II (Vladimirko)

Legitimate son of Yaroslav. Last of the dynasty.

1199

Finally securing Halych, Roman the Great, prince of Volynia, forms the second Rurikid dynasty by uniting Halychyna and neighbouring Volynia to create the principality of Halych-Volynia, which survives for a century and a half, although not necessarily united under one ruler.

1199 - 1205

Roman Mstislavich the Great

Prince of Novgorod, Volodymyr, Halych and Kiev.

1205 - 1214

Roman is defeated by Andrew II of Hungary, who claims the title king of Galicia and Lodomeria. The princes between 1205 and 1213 are all vassals of Hungary.

1205 - 1206

Danylo Romanovych / Daniel of Galicia

Son.

1206 - 1208

Vladimir III Igorevich

1208 - 1210

Roman II Igorevich

1211

Vladimir III Igorevich

Restored.

1211 - 1213

Danylo Romanovych / Daniel of Galicia

Restored.

1213

Vladislav

1213 - 1219

Coloman of Hungary

King of Lodomeria (1215-1219, 1220-1221).

1219 - 1228

Mstislav the Bold

1221

Mstislav Mstislavich liberates Halych-Volynia from the Hungarians.

1228 - 1264

Danylo Romanovych / Daniel of Galicia

Restored second time. King of Ruthenia / Halych-Volynia (1253).

1239

Danylo captures the ancient Rus capital of Kiev while the Rus lands are being invaded by the Golden Horde.

1241 - 1256

Batu Khan leads the Mongols of the Golden Horde into Red Ruthenia, of which Galicia is a part, capturing the capital and destroying the cathedral in 1241. Essentially, the Golden Horde remains mostly to the south and east of Galicia. They are driven out in 1256 and the cathedral is rebuilt, and is last mentioned in 1576. The Mongols retain suzerainty over the state from a distance.

1264 - 1269

Svarn / Shvarn / Svarnas

Son. Also grand duke of Lithuania (1267-1269).

1267

The assassination of Vaisvilkas of Lithuania by Svarn's brother, Lev, secures Svarn's newly-acquired position on the throne through his marriage to one of the daughters of Mindaugas.

1269 - 1301

Lev I Daniilovich / Leo

Brother. King of Galicia (1269) & Volynia (1293).

1272

The capital is moved from Halych to the new city of Lvov (the Russian form of its name. In Polish it is Lwow, and in Austro-Hungarian German it is Lemberg). Today the city, which was founded in 1256, is much more commonly known by the Ukrainian form of its name, Lviv.

Old Lvov
The centre of Old Lvov (German Lemberg) was founded by Danylo Romanovych and apparently named for his son, Lev

1274 - 1275

Smolensk is the last of the independent principalities of the Rus, but it now falls to Mongke Temur of the Golden Horde. The following year he defends his Rus vassals by dispatching a Mongol-Rus force to ward off the Lithuanians, an action requested by Duke Lev I of Halych-Volynia.

1293 - 1301

Lev regains Volynia, temporarily reuniting the two principalities. Following his death, the principality begins to decline.

1301 - 1308

Yuri / Yuriy I

Son. King of Galicia. The crown lapsed with his death.

1308 - 1323

Andrei / Andrey

Son. Duke of Galicia and Volynia. Killed by the Golden Horde.

1308 - 1323

Lev II / Leo II of Halych

Brother. Co-ruler. Killed by the Golden Horde.

1323 - 1349

The brothers Andrei and Lev die together in battle against the Mongols of the Golden Horde, leaving no heir, so their sister, Maria, becomes the heiress of Galicia-Lvov. Already married to Trojden I of Masovia, the duchy is drawn closer to the Polish crown. The boyars invite the Polish prince of Mazovia, Boleslaw son of Trojden I of Czersk, to rule Galicia. He converts to Orthodoxy and assumes the name Yuri II.

1323 - 1340

Yuri II (Boleslaw) / Boleslaw Jerzy II

Grandson of Yuri. Poisoned by the boyars.

1340 - 1349

Liubartas

1349 - 1772

Galicia (and all of Red Ruthenia) is finally reclaimed for Poland by Kasimierz III when the kingdom is partitioned by him and Lithuania. By this time, Halych has been depopulated to the extent that the old town dies off. A new Halych is founded five kilometres (three miles) away, which survives to today. The region remains tied to the Polish crown until the First Partition of Poland-Lithuania in 1772. Then Galicia is claimed by Austria to form the kingdom of Galicia & Lodomeria.

Kingdom of Galicia & Lodomeria
AD 1772 - 1918

On 5 August 1772, during the First Partition of Poland-Lithuania, Habsburg Austria was able to gain parts of Little Poland (Malopolska) and Red Ruthenia (Rus Czerwona), including territory which almost corresponded to the former kingdom of Halych-Volynia, thanks to the Hungarian claim of ownership of 1205-1214, which Austria inherited. The following month, Austria created the kingdom of Galicia & Lodomeria as an administrative body to govern the newly acquired territories, with the Austrian king himself as head of state. Governors were put in place to control the day-to-day administrative duties within the kingdom. Twenty-three years later, the Third Partition saw Austria add the rest of Little Poland as well as Krakow to the kingdom as Poland itself ceased to exist as a state.

1772 - 1774

Johann Baptist Anton Graf von Persen

1774

Andreas Graf Hadik von Futak

1774 - 1780

Heinrich Auersperg

1780 - 1794

Józef Brigido

1794 - 1795

Józef Szekely

1795 - 1801

Jan Gaisruck

1801

Joseph Franz da Paula

Acting governor.

1801 - 1806

Józef Freiherr von Úrményi

1806 - 1809

Christian Wurmser

Acting governor.

1806

Napoleon I of France defeats Austria in 1805. The following year sees the Holy Roman empire terminated. Prussia's Polish territory is annexed and an Imperial satellite state called the grand duchy of Warsaw is formed from them. Austria appoints military governors to oversee their satellite kingdom, and for a short time (between March 1809 and March 1810) they displace the position of governor entirely, after a gap in their own governance (1808-1809), and they continue to oversee matters until the French are expelled from Germany in 1814. Military governors are shown in red.

1806 - 1808

Heinrich Joseph Johannes

1808 - 1809

No military governor is appointed. In 1809, western Galicia is ceded to the grand duchy of Warsaw, but previous annexations remain part of Austria.

1809 - 1813

Heinrich Joseph Johannes

Second term of office.

1810 - 1815

Peter Goess

1813 - 1814

Michael Freiherr von Klienmayr

1815

Georg Oechsner

Acting governor.

1815 - 1822

Franz Seraph Freiherr von Hauer

Acting governor until Sep 1817.

1822 - 1826

Ludwig Patrick Taafe

1826

The position of governor is raised to governor-general.

1826 - 1832

August Longin Fürst von Lobkowitz

First governor-general.

1832 - 1846

Ferdinand Karl Joseph d'Este

1846 - 1847

Franz Freiherr Krieg von Hochfelden

Acting governor.

1847 - 1848

Franz Seraph Graf Stadion

1848

Wilhelm Karl K Freiherr von Hammerstein

1848

Agenor Romuald Onufry

Working with von Hammerstein.

1848

Goluchowski von Goluchowo

Acting governor.

1848 - 1849

Wenzel Zalewski

1849 - 1859

Agenor Romuald Onufry

1859 - 1860

Joseph Freiherr von Kalchberg

Acting governor.

1860 - 1861

Karl Ritter von Mosch

Acting governor.

1861 - 1864

Alexander Graf Mensdorff-Pouilly

1864 - 1866

Franz Xaver Freiherr von Paumgarten

1866 - 1867

Agenor Romuald Onufry Graf Goluchowski

Second term of office.

1867 - 1871

Ludwik von Choborski Freiherr Possinger

Acting governor.

1871 - 1875

Agenor Romuald Onufry Graf Goluchowski

Third term of office.

1875 - 1883

Alfred Józef Graf Potocki von Pilawa

1883 - 1888

Filip Zaleski

1888 - 1895

Kazimierz Feliks Graf Badeni

1895 - 1898

Eustachy Fürst Sanguszko

1898 - 1903

Leon Graf von Pilinski

1903 - 1908

Andrzej Graf Potocki von Pilawa

1908 - 1913

Michal Bobrzynski

1913 - 1915

Witold Korytowski

1914 - 1917

The Russian army occupies most of Galicia, reaching Lemberg (Lvov) on 3 September 1914 and Przemysl on 22 March 1915. Military governors are appointed to the occupied territory in Galicia, shown in green.

Galicia during the First World War
Galicia was incorporated into the Eastern Front during the First World War

1914 - 1915

Georgy Aleksandrovich Bobrynski

Russian military governor in occupied Galicia.

1915 - 1916

Hermann von Colard

Austrian governor in the remainder of unoccupied Galicia.

1916 - 1917

Erich Freiherr von Diller

1916 - 1917

Fyodor Fyodorovich Trepov

1917 - 1918

Karl Georg Graf Huyn

Last Austrian governor of Galicia.

1917

The region falls under the command of the general commissar of the 'Regency of the Polish Kingdom'. However, this kingdom exists only on paper and is superseded by the republic of Poland in 1918.

1917 - 1918

Prince Witold Czartoryski

1918

Towards the last days of the First World War, the Austro-Hungarian empire begins to collapse. On 1 November, Galicia and Lodomeria are incorporated into the new republic of Poland, which itself is declared on 7 November. Eastern parts of Galicia are claimed as the West Ukrainian People's Republic, while the Lemko-Rusyn Republic that is formed in western Galicia tries to link up with Russia before being suppressed by Poland. The competing territorial claims lead to war between Poland, Russia, and Ukraine, and Galicia remains a Polish possession as a result. Today the former kingdom is almost entirely within Ukraine, except for its westernmost edge.