History Files


European Kingdoms

The Franks




Kings of Lotharingia
AD 855 - 925

Lotharingia was created out of the Middle Frankish kingdom of Lothar I, and eventually became a satellite state, and later duchy of France. It included territory which later emerged as the county of Luxemberg. Initially it was ruled by Lothar I as a constituent part of Francia Media, which included all of central and northern Italy (the territory of the former exarchate of Ravenna and the kingdom of the Lombards), and the Rhine corridor up to the modern Netherlands, which also included Switzerland. The imperial city of Aachen, Charlemagne's former residence, was included in this territory. However, this greatness was ephemeral. Lothar's death in 855 at Prüm Abbey signalled its division under the Frankish practice of partible inheritance. His territory, which had never really bonded into a single entity thanks to its very different cultural backgrounds, was divided relatively equally between his three sons. Lothar II received Lotharingia, an amalgam of the Rhine corridor territories between Burgundy and the Low Countries.

855 - 869

Lothar II

Son of Lothar I, king of Italy. Also king of Burgundy & Provence.

870 - 895

Following the death of Lothar, his territory is divided fairly by his uncles under the terms of the Treaty of Meerssen (or Mersen). Those uncles are Louis the German of the Eastern Franks and Charles the Bald of the Western Franks. In 880, Lotharingia is incorporated into the nascent Germanic Roman Empire thanks to the Treaty of Ribemont.

A period of confusion begins in 895/6 when the German king hands Lotharingia to his illegitimate son.

895 - 900

Zwentibold of Lorraine

Illegitimate son of Germanic Emperor Arnulf.

900 - 910

Gebhard of Franconia

Duke of Lotharingia. Appointed by Eastern Frankish court.

911 - 915

Reginar / Rainier of Maasgau / Mons

Local noble. Transferred allegiance to Western Franks.


Lotharingia becomes a Western Frankish satellite state.

915 - 925

Charles III the Simple

King of Western Franks.


Charles had been deposed in the west in 923. Reginar's son, Gilbert, aligns himself with the Eastern Franks once more, and governs Lotheringia in the name of the East Frankish German king.

Duchy of Lorraine
AD 925 - 975

925 - 936

Gilbert (Giselbert)

Son of Reginar. Son-in-law of Henry I of Saxony.

936 - 944

The duchy reverts to the king of Germany, Otto I, who later gains the Holy Roman empire (962).

944 - 953

Conrad the Red

Son-in-law of HRE Otto I. Great-grandfather of Conrad II.


Feeling that his position is threatened by his father's marriage to Adelaide, heiress of Italy, Ludolph of Swabia joins forces with his brother-in-law, Conrad the Red, in revolt. Ludolph is supported by the Swabians, but Conrad fails to gain the same support from his own subjects. Otto I of Saxony and Henry I of Bavaria defeat the rebellion, and Conrad is deprived of his title in favour of Otto's brother.

953 - 959

St Bruno the Great

Brother of Otto I of Saxony. Archbishop of Cologne.

959 - 975

Frederick I

Duke of Upper Lorraine (975-978).


The stronghold of Lucilinburhuc is gained by Sigfried, count of Ardennes. It quickly grows to become the county of Luxemburg under Conrad I.

Ardennes Forest
The thick forest of the Ardennes formed part of the medieval county of Ardennes, with this state also gaining Luxembourg in 963, another county in the making


Duchy is split between Upper and Lower Lorraine.

Duchy of Upper Lorraine
AD 975 - 1176

975 - 978

Frederick I

978 - 1027

Thierry / Dietrich / Theodoric I

1027 - 1033

Frederick II

Grandfather of Godfrey of Bouillon.

1033 - 1044

Gozelo I of Verdun

Duke of Lower Lorraine (1023-1044).

1044 - 1047

Godfrey II the Bearded

Became duke of Lower Lorraine (1065-1069).

1047 - 1048

Adalbert of Metz

1048 - 1070

Gerard of Metz

1070 - 1115

Thierry / Dietrich / Theodoric II

1115 - 1139

Simon I

Brother of Thierry, count of Flanders.

1139 - 1176

Matthew I

1176 - 1190

Simon II

Duke of (a single) Lorraine from 1190.


The title of Lower Lorraine passes out of use once the dukes of Brabant gain it. Effectively, Upper Lorraine is the only surviving Duchy of Lorraine.

Duchy of Lower Lorraine
AD 975 - 1100

The area that formed Lower Lorraine included Breda, Antwerp, Brabant and Aix-la-Chapelle. During the conquests of Julius Caesar the land between Breda and Antwerp had provided a home for the Ambivariti tribe, and later the Toxandri.

975 - 991

Charles the Carolingian

Son of Louis V of France. His claim to the crown was ignored.

987 - 991

By this time the Carolingian kings and those drawn from the House of Paris have so weakened the effectiveness of the monarchy in France that it owns little land outside Paris. The Carolingian son of Louis V, Charles the Carolingian, duke of Lower Lorraine, is ignored in favour of passing the crown permanently to the House of Paris under Hugh Capet. Charles struggles to regain 'his' throne, but he is captured and imprisoned, and dies in Orleans.

991 - 1012

Otto the Carolingian

The last Carolingian.

1012 - 1023

Godfrey I of Verdun

1023 - 1044

Gozelo I of Verdun

Became duke of Upper Lorraine (1033-1044).

1044 - 1046

Gozelo II the Sluggard

1046 - 1065

Frederick of Luxembourg

1065 - 1069

Godfrey II the Bearded

Former duke of Upper Lorraine (1044-1047). Margrave of Spoleto.

1069 - 1076

Godfrey III the Hunchback

1076 - 1087

Conrad II

Conrad VI of Franconia.

1087 - 1100

Godfrey of Bouillon

Protector of Jerusalem (1099-1100).


Lower Lorraine passes to the dukes of Brabant, who cease using the title ('Lothier') in 1190, so the duchy ceases to exist as a separate entity. Upper Lorraine survives, now the only Duchy of Lorraine.

Duchy of Lorraine
AD 1190 - 1767

1190 - 1206

Simon II

Duke of Upper Lorraine (1176-1190).

1206 - 1213

Ferry II of Bitsch

1213 - 1220

Thiébaut I

1220 - 1251

Matthew II

1251 - 1303

Ferry III

1303 - 1312

Thiébaut II

1312 - 1329

Ferry IV

1329 - 1346


1346 - 1390

John I

1390 - 1431

Charles II the Bold

1431 - 1453


1431 - 1453

René I the Good of Anjou

1431 - 1453

John I of Calabria

1435 - 1442

The claim to the kingdom of Naples passes to René I, but by 1442 Alfonso V of Aragon & Sicily conquers the duchy.

1453 - 1470

John II

1470 - 1473


1473 - 1483


Married Ferri II of Guise.

1473 - 1508

René II of Guise

1508 - 1544

Anthony 'il Buono'

1544 - 1545

Francis I

1545 - 1608

Charles III

1608 - 1624

Henry II

1624 - 1656


Married to Charles IV, duke of Lorraine.


Francis II

Died 1632.

1625 - 1675

Charles IV

Married to Nicola, duchess of Lorraine.

1675 - 1690

Charles V


John III of Poland and Charles lift the siege of Austrian Vienna on 12 September, ending Ottoman expansion in Europe.

1690 - 1729

Leopold Joseph

1729 - 1737

Francis III

Francis I HRE (1745-1765). Married to Maria Theresa Habsburg.

1737 - 1767

Stanislaw Lesczinski

In the settlement of the War of Polish Succession, 1733-1735.


Marie Lesczinska

Heiress of Lorraine, married to Louis XV of France.


Lorraine passes to France through marriage.